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  • 1 Understand
  • 2 Travel across time zones
  • 4.1 Daylight Saving Time
  • 5 Sports and time zones
  • 6.3 UTC+12:45
  • 6.6 UTC+10:30
  • 6.8 UTC+09:30
  • 6.10 UTC+08:45
  • 6.11 UTC+08
  • 6.12 UTC+07
  • 6.13 UTC+06:30
  • 6.14 UTC+06
  • 6.15 UTC+05:45
  • 6.16 UTC+05:30
  • 6.17 UTC+05
  • 6.18 UTC+04:30
  • 6.19 UTC+04
  • 6.20 UTC+03:30
  • 6.21 UTC+03
  • 6.22 UTC+02
  • 6.23 UTC+01
  • 6.25 UTC-01
  • 6.26 UTC-02
  • 6.27 UTC-03
  • 6.28 UTC-03:30
  • 6.29 UTC-04
  • 6.30 UTC-05
  • 6.31 UTC-06
  • 6.32 UTC-07
  • 6.33 UTC-08
  • 6.34 UTC-09
  • 6.35 UTC-09:30
  • 6.36 UTC-10
  • 6.37 UTC-11
  • 6.38 UTC-12

tourism time zones

Time zones and daylight hours affect travellers in many ways. Watches and smartphones may show a time different from the local one, friends may call in the middle of the night as it is afternoon at home, and the sun may rise at wall clock times you wouldn't expect. The official local time affects opening hours, but for outdoor activities you may need to also consider when it is morning or noon according to the sun. This article discusses most of those issues. Below is also a list of countries, regions, and territories grouped by time zone. For extreme sunrise and sunset times, occurring in the far north and south, see also Midnight sun .

Understand [ edit ]

Although many time zones have descriptive names used by people in them, they are least ambiguously identified by their relationship to UTC (Universal Time, Co-ordinated). GMT (Greenwich Mean Time) is nearly synonymous, named after the Royal Observatory located in the Greenwich area of London, but its definitions have varied over time and may vary slightly by context.

UTC is also sometimes called Z or Zulu time. A time may be written as e.g. 21:45Z with the Z indicating UTC. The "Z" is for "zero", and "Zulu" is the two-way radio pronunciation of "Z". It comes from the nautical system in which each time zone was assigned a letter.

Time zones east of UTC and west of the International Date Line are specified by the number of hours ahead of UTC (e.g. UTC+4); zones west of UTC and east of the Date Line are specified by the number of hours behind UTC (e.g. UTC-6). Crossing the Date Line going eastward, clocks are turned back a full 24 hours, and vice versa in the opposite direction. The total span of time zones covers more than 24 hours because the Date Line jogs westward and eastward to keep certain national island groups on the same calendar day, although they are not within a single time zone.

tourism time zones

While when observing "sun time", the sun is at its highest at noon, the political time zones can be stretched out or biased to differ even a few hours from this. Often the only thing that matters is wall clock time, but in areas where you'd prefer indoor activities in the hottest hours, or where daylight hours are few, check times of the hottest hours, the hours with most UV-radiation, or times of sunrise and sunset, depending on your needs. If you don't have these times available, note that the sun moves 15° of longitude by hour, so 30° east of Greenwich, the sun is at its highest at 10:00 UTC; if the time zone is UTC+1, that's 11:00. The hottest time is usually the hours after noon. Darkness comes soon after sunset near the equator, while real dusk comes half an hour after sunset at latitudes of 60°.

Sunrise and sunset can occur at vastly different times than you might be used to, varying from east to west across each time zone. As such, it might be a good idea to check sunrise and sunset times for the time of year you'll be travelling to your destination. As an example: in the American Eastern Time Zone, Boston and parts of Maine and New England, see daybreak around 4:45–5:45AM in the summer and sunset by 8PM, but in the western edge, Indiana Michigan, sunrise isn't until 6:30AM and it isn't dark til 9:15–10:15PM. Another example is Vorkuta in Russia, where sunrise and sunset annually average out at 4:40AM and 4:40PM – with "yesterday" sunrises in May and July. In western Spain , China , and Alaska , daylight averages from 8:30AM to 8:30PM.

Travel across time zones [ edit ]

You need to take some care when planning trips that cross several time zones, e.g.,

  • Your "body clock" may experience some stress as you tell it to meet business appointments, tours and other obligations during hours when you'd be asleep if at home. See Jet lag .
  • You may miss an important obligation, or connections with scheduled transport, simply by not understanding what will be the correct local time – or a different time used in your timetable – as you travel.
  • Starting a 12–15 hour flight from the U.S. west coast to Japan or Hong Kong in late evening can land you there in the morning two calendar days later.
  • If starting the reverse course by midday, you may, in a way, travel back in time, as you land earlier than you started. For example a typical flight from Sydney to LA will take off at lunchtime and land early in the morning on the same calendar date!
  • Even just crossing from one time zone to another can be confusing, as you still may arrive before you left, such as when flying from Minsk to Warsaw . You don't even need to fly, or travel east to west. The same happens when taking the north-bound bus from Utsjoki to Tana . Crossing from Kirkenes south to Murmansk Oblast (from November to March), you instead lose two hours, in addition to the travel time.

If your travel has time zone complexities or possible impacts on your health or comfort, consult an expert as you plan it.

If you're in another part of the world, family and friends should be aware of the time zone issue when contacting you. You don't want them calling you in the middle of your night, even if it for them is the time they are used to calling.

Jet lag [ edit ]

Jet lag is a mismatch between your body clock and the local time wherever you are. It's caused by rapid travel across time zones, and compounded by the fact that long hours spent on a plane can cause you to sleep too much, or not enough, possibly at the wrong time. Flights from east to west, where you gain a few hours, are usually a bit easier, as most people find it easier to stay up a little later than to go to bed earlier. A rule of thumb is that you recover about 1 hour difference per day. You may find that on your way out, you are fine after just a couple of days, but you will really notice the recovery period on your way home . At that point your body clock will be really confused and it will take a while for it to sort things out.

You can aid the process a bit by trying to operate on your new local time as early as possible, and spending the daylight hours in your new time zone outdoors the first few days. If you're going to land early in the day, try to sleep on the plane so you arrive refreshed and ready for a full day of activity. Conversely, if you're going to arrive near the evening, try to stay awake on the plane so that you'll be tired when you arrive and can get a lengthy sleep.

Political time zones [ edit ]

As can be seen on the map above, some time-zones seem to defy logic and were mostly drawn by national or regional governments to make commerce and administration easier. This can have strange consequences, most notably in the case of China which "should" span five time zones but for political reasons observes the same (Beijing) time in all its territory. To complicate matters, in the restive province of Xinjiang , Beijing time is used by ethnic Han, but UTC +6 is used by ethnic Uyghurs. Departure times of long distance transport are given in one time zone (usually that of the departure point, although the Trans-Siberian railway used to run on Moscow time throughout Russia). On international waters, ship time is decided by the captain (to avoid unnecessary hassle); some Baltic ferries claim to use local time, while what they use is ship time, which corresponds to time at the departure port (with some confusion at arrival). Sir Sandford Fleming, inventor of time zones, was a railway man as rail travel was the advance that made standard time zones necessary. Some railways published schedules with disclaimers like "all times are X time" even before time zones legally existed. Stations sometimes had a clock showing railway time while the town hall or church showed a different "local time" a few minutes off – some stations in Central Europe had a row of clocks for different lines.

The time zones (and the International Date Line) often snake around political boundaries; Chicago lags a full hour behind Thunder Bay because the latter is on Ottawa 's side of a provincial boundary. There's a 21-hour time difference between the Diomede Islands , a mere 3 km (1.9 mi) apart but separated by the International Date Line. Visiting the Aroostook Valley Country Club? By the time you get to the 19th hole, you may be wondering where that extra hour went... as the clubhouse was built in New Brunswick as a measure to circumvent Prohibition, putting it an hour ahead of the same course's pro shop in Maine .

Another odd time-zone border lies in Europe where (also mostly due to political reasons) going west from France lets you stay in the same time zone – when you should have to change from Central European time (UTC+1) to UTC or even UTC-1 – but going north from France to Great Britain you will have to change time-zone to GMT (UTC).

A bunch of odd time zones also exist in Australia where the central states and territories of South Australia and the Northern Territory are meant to follow UTC+9, but instead, they follow UTC+9.5 to minimise the difference and disruption when going to the eastern states. Unusually, the outback New South Welsh city of Broken Hill, is completely situated in New South Wales, 30km away from the SA border, follows ACST, and not AEST. And worst of all, there are small towns scattered across the middle of nowhere in WA close to the NT border. The problem here is, that some choose to follow AWST (UTC+8) or ACST (UTC+9.5). There's no discrete border between these time zones, and as such, you could be turning your watches back and forth by 1.5 hours frequently in these areas. And finally, in the Gold Coast-Tweed Heads (Qld-NSW), during summer, you may unexpectedly cross the border, you might have travelled an hour ahead or behind. Daylight Saving Time can further complicate matters.

A handful of time zones differ from UTC not by full hours but by (usually) some other multiple of 15 minutes. North Korea adopted UTC+8:30 briefly (which differs from South Korea 's UTC+9 by half an hour) only to drop it just as abruptly during a 2018 thaw in relations; both moves were deemed political by some. Newfoundland island (UTC-3.5, summer UTC-2.5) differs from its neighbours St. Pierre and Miquelon (UTC-3 year-round), Cape Breton (UTC-4, summer UTC-3) and Blanc Sablon (UTC-4 year-round); continue into Labrador and Newfoundland time returns, only to fall back to Cape Breton's time zone somewhere between Red Bay and Cartwright .

Daylight Saving Time [ edit ]

In many jurisdictions, local time is set forward by an extra hour in summer to "shift" daylight hours to the end of the day. This is known in the UK as British Summer Time (BST, GMT+1) and almost anywhere else as Daylight Saving Time (DST) or with "Daylight Time" appended to the name of the local time zone.

Born as a wartime energy conservation measure, the adoption of DST is inherently political and its abolition (as proposed by the European Union for the near future) just as political. Most tropical countries see absolutely no need for DST, keeping standard time year round. Southern Hemisphere countries have opposite summer and winter to the Northern Hemisphere. There is no universally agreed point of the year to change from standard to daylight saving time, leaving wild leaps and fluctuations where one country has already changed and the other has not. Sometimes, one subnational jurisdiction (like Saskatchewan or Arizona ) politically chooses to not use DST at all; tee off at the 9th hole of the Gateway Cities Golf Course in North Portal, Saskatchewan and the ball rolls into the cup in Portal, North Dakota an hour later. Sometimes, one country makes a political decision to start daylight saving time early during a conflict or an energy crisis; the US did this during the 1973-74 oil embargo, leaving the Thousand Islands briefly in two different time zones and disrupting TV/radio broadcast schedules. If you travel during that time or call home, inform yourself of the local time at both your destination and point of origin.

In temperate northern countries, DST usually starts late March or early April and ends late October or early November; exact start dates (and times) vary by country (but are harmonized across EU ). Equatorial nations typically use no DST; southern nations will use dates that match their local summer. It's not unheard of for an individual subnational jurisdiction – or even a piece of one province – to opt out of a DST scheme in effect in the rest of the same nation. Due to the nature of daylight saving time the difference in time zones may vary during the year as one country doesn't have daylight saving time while the other does, or both have it but start at different times. However due to increasing commerce and international communication via the internet and other nearly instantaneous modes, there are increasing efforts to harmonize those things, especially among direct neighbors or political entities with good relations with each other.

Sports and time zones [ edit ]

Sports fans notice the impact of being in a different time zone any time they plan to view or listen to a live broadcast of a sporting even. For example, someone from the East Coast of the United States who is on the country's West Coast would watch a game three hours earlier per local time than they would while at home. By contrast, Super Bowl Sunday is actually Monday afternoon in Australia.

Global sporting organizations tend to schedule events according to when they would be viewed live in the U.S.A. and Europe. This happened with the 2020 Summer Olympics in Tokyo, when the swimming finals took place in the early morning.

List of time zones [ edit ]

Utc+14 [ edit ].

  • Kiribati Line Islands

UTC+13 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Kiribati : Phoenix Islands

UTC+12:45 [ edit ]

  • New Zealand : Chatham Islands

UTC+12 [ edit ]

  • France : Wallis and Futuna
  • Kiribati : Gilbert Islands
  • Marshall Islands
  • New Zealand
  • Russia : MSK+9 — Anadyr , Chukotka , Kamchatka , Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky , Yuzhno-Kurilsk
  • Wake Island

UTC+11 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Australia : Norfolk Island
  • Federated States of Micronesia : Kosrae , Pohnpei
  • New Caledonia
  • Papua New Guinea
  • Russia : MSK+8 — Chersky , Khonuu , Kuril Islands , Magadan Oblast , Srednekolymsk , Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk , Zyryanka
  • Solomon Islands
  • Australia : NSW, Vic, ACT and Tasmania (DST)

UTC+10:30 [ edit ]

  • Australia : Lord Howe Island

UTC+10 [ edit ]

  • Australia : Australian Capital Territory , almost all of New South Wales , Queensland , Tasmania , Victoria ( Australian Eastern Standard Time )
  • Federated States of Micronesia : Chuuk , Yap
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Russia : MSK+7 — Birobidzhan , Khabarovsk Krai , Vladivostok

UTC+09:30 [ edit ]

  • Australia : Northern Territory , South Australia , Broken Hill (New South Wales) , Blackstone, Irrunytju, Warakurna, Wanarn, Kiwirrkurra, and Tjukurla ( Australian Central Standard Time )

UTC+09 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Indonesia (eastern): Maluku , Papua
  • Russia : MSK+6 — Blagoveshchensk , Chita , Yakutia
  • South Korea
  • Timor-Leste
  • North Korea

UTC+08:45 [ edit ]

  • Australia : Eucla , Cocklebiddy , Madura , Mundrabilla and Border Village ( Also known as Australian Central Western Standard Time )

UTC+08 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Australia : Western Australia ( Australian Western Standard Time )
  • China : While China should geographically be in several time zones the Central Government has declared Beijing time to be official in all of China even as far west as Tibet. While this makes travel a lot easier, it leads to sunrises at 09:00 and other strange things.
  • Indonesia (central): Bali , Nusa Tenggara , Sulawesi , East and South Kalimantan
  • Mongolia (most of the country)
  • Philippines
  • Russia : MSK+5 — Irkutsk Oblast , Ulan Ude ,

UTC+07 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Christmas Island (Australia)
  • Indonesia (western): Java , Sumatra , West and Central Kalimantan
  • Mongolia ( Hovd , Uvs , and Bayan-Ölgii )
  • Russia : MSK+4 — Abakan , Barnaul , Gorno-Altaisk , Khatanga , Krasnoyarsk , Kemerovo , Kyzyl , Norilsk , Novosibirsk , Tomsk

UTC+06:30 [ edit ]

  • Cocos Islands (Australia)

UTC+06 [ edit ]

  • British Indian Ocean Territory : Diego Garcia
  • Russia : MSK+3 — Omsk Oblast

UTC+05:45 [ edit ]

Utc+05:30 [ edit ].

tourism time zones

  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands (Australia)

UTC+05 [ edit ]

  • French Southern and Antarctic Lands
  • Heard Island and McDonald Islands
  • Russia : MSK+2: Chelyabinsk , Kurgan , Orenburg , Perm , Salekhard , Tyumen , Ufa , Yekaterinburg
  • Turkmenistan

UTC+04:30 [ edit ]

  • Afghanistan

UTC+04 [ edit ]

  • Russia : MSK+1 — Astrakhan , Samara , Saratov , Udmurtia , Ulyanovsk
  • United Arab Emirates

UTC+03:30 [ edit ]

Utc+03 [ edit ].

tourism time zones

  • Russia : MSK — most of the European portion, including Moscow , Saint Petersburg , Nizhny Novgorod , Rostov-on-Don , etc. MSK traditionally had been used on all railways throughout Russia including Udmurtia
  • Saudi Arabia
  • South Sudan

UTC+02 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (eastern)
  • Palestinian territories
  • Russia : MSK-1: Kaliningrad Oblast
  • South Africa

UTC+01 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Central African Republic
  • Republic of the Congo
  • Democratic Republic of the Congo (western)
  • Czech Republic
  • Equatorial Guinea
  • Liechtenstein
  • Morocco (year-round)
  • Netherlands
  • North Macedonia
  • Switzerland
  • Vatican City

UTC [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Burkina Faso
  • Bouvet Island
  • Canary Islands
  • Cote d'Ivoire
  • Faroe Islands
  • Greenland (northeastern)
  • Guinea-Bissau
  • Isle of Man
  • Northern Ireland
  • Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
  • Sao Tome and Principe
  • Sierra Leone
  • United Kingdom
  • Western Sahara

UTC-01 [ edit ]

  • Azores (Portugal)
  • Greenland (east)

UTC-02 [ edit ]

  • Fernando de Noronha (Brazil)
  • South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands
  • Trindade and Martim Vaz (uninhabited islands) (Brazil)

UTC-03 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Brazil : Brasilia , Rio , São Paulo , Fortaleza , Maceio , Recife , Salvador , etc.
  • Falkland Islands
  • French Guiana
  • Greenland (central)
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon

UTC-03:30 [ edit ]

  • Canada : Newfoundland (most of Labrador , except Forteau and Red Bay, is UTC-4)

UTC-04 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Antigua and Barbuda
  • Brazil : Boa Vista , Campo Grande , Manaus
  • British Virgin Islands
  • Canada (Atlantic Standard Time): New Brunswick , Nova Scotia , Prince Edward Island , most of Labrador , a small portion of eastern Quebec . Québec does not use Atlantic Daylight Time.
  • Dominican Republic
  • Greenland (west)
  • Puerto Rico
  • Saint-Barthelemy
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis
  • Saint Lucia
  • Saint Martin
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  • Sint Eustatius
  • Sint Maarten
  • Trinidad and Tobago
  • Turks and Caicos Islands
  • U.S. Virgin Islands

UTC-05 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Brazil : Acre
  • Canada (Eastern Standard Time): Nunavut , most of Ontario , most of Quebec . This zone runs from Anticosti (63°W) past Thunder Bay (so westward to 90°W), to include most of Canada's population and the entire beaten-path Windsor-Quebec corridor .
  • Cayman Islands
  • Mexico : Quintana Roo
  • United States of America (Eastern Standard Time): Maine , New Hampshire , Vermont , Massachusetts , Connecticut , Rhode Island , New York , Michigan except extreme northwestern counties, Indiana except the southwest and northwest corners, Ohio , Pennsylvania , New Jersey , eastern Kentucky , West Virginia , Virginia , Washington, D.C. , Maryland , Delaware , eastern Tennessee , North Carolina , Georgia , South Carolina , Florida except western part of panhandle.

UTC-06 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Canada (Central Standard Time): Manitoba , Saskatchewan except for the region around Lloydminster , part of north-western Ontario. Saskatchewan does not use daylight time, except in Lloydminster.
  • Chile : Easter Island
  • Ecuador : Galapagos Islands
  • El Salvador
  • United States of America (Central Standard Time): Wisconsin , Illinois , the southwest and northwest corners of Indiana , western Kentucky , western and middle Tennessee , Mississippi , Alabama , Minnesota , Iowa , Missouri , Arkansas , Louisiana , north and east North Dakota , eastern South Dakota , middle and eastern Nebraska , most of Kansas , Oklahoma , most of Texas , part of western Florida (panhandle).

UTC-07 [ edit ]

  • Canada (Mountain Standard Time): Alberta , small eastern portion of British Columbia , both sides of Lloydminster , which lies on the Alberta–Saskatchewan border
  • Mexico : Baja California Sur : Chihuahua , Nayarit , Sinaloa , Sonora . No Daylight Time in Sonora.
  • United States of America (Mountain Standard Time): southwest North Dakota , western South Dakota , western Nebraska , a sliver of Kansas , Montana , a sliver of Oregon , southern Idaho , Wyoming , Utah , Colorado , Arizona , New Mexico , a corner of Texas . No Daylight Time in Arizona, except for the Navajo Nation.

UTC-08 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Canada (Pacific Standard Time): most of British Columbia , Yukon
  • Clipperton Island
  • Mexico : Baja California Norte
  • Pitcairn Islands
  • United States of America (Pacific Standard Time): Washington , northern Idaho , most of Oregon , California , Nevada

UTC-09 [ edit ]

  • French Polynesia : Gambier Islands
  • United States of America : most of Alaska

UTC-09:30 [ edit ]

  • French Polynesia : Marquesas Islands

UTC-10 [ edit ]

tourism time zones

  • Cook Islands
  • French Polynesia (France): Society Islands , Tuamotu Islands , Austral Islands
  • Johnston Atoll (US)
  • United States of America : Hawaii , and Aleutian Islands in Alaska

UTC-11 [ edit ]

  • American Samoa
  • Jarvis Island , Palmyra Atoll
  • Midway Islands

UTC-12 [ edit ]

  • Baker Island
  • Howland Island

tourism time zones

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“The galddest moment, me thinks, is a departure into unknown lands.” –Sir Richard Burton

Your Complete Guide to Understanding World Time Zone

tourism time zones

Understanding the world’s time zone can be challenging even for a frequent traveler. You may be a pro traveler, but you’ve most likely experienced jet lag and travel fatigue when traveling across the country or around the world. You’ve had to adjust your watch when you crossed the Atlantic Ocean or flew from the East Coast to the West Coast. And you’ve most certainly tried to figure out how to make up for the lost time when you traveled eastwards or felt happy over “gaining time” when you arrived at a westward location in an earlier time zone as your home city.

For international travelers, one of the first things you wonder about when planning a trip to a faraway destination is the time zone, what time it is at that location, and perhaps the weather as well, and somehow, it seems like every country is on a different time than where you live. For instance, when it’s 7 pm in Portofino, Italy, it’s noon in Chicago, and even more confusing, it’s 10 am in Seattle – all on the same day! And when you factor in Daylight Saving Time (DST), it can add more confusion because some places like Santa Barbara, California, which are typically on a Pacific Standard Time (PST), revert to using Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) during certain times of the year, while most cities in Arizona do not observe DST.

Remembering all the different time zones in the world may be difficult, but understanding the basics of how time zones work and why they exist can help us plan for better travel, adapt to time zone change, and manage jet lag symptoms when traveling outside our home time zone.

What are Time Zones

A time zone refers to the local time of a region, area, or country. Every region of the world belongs to a specific time zone, and within that time zone, a uniform standard time is maintained. This uniform standard time, or local time within a time zone, is based on the concept of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) which is the world’s time standard.

What is UTC

UTC or Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is a point of reference for which other times are extrapolated. It is based on the prime meridian, which is the starting point for measuring the distance around the earth – east and west. In 1884, after years of confusion across nations on how to measure the distance around the world, the prime meridian (the main point of reference) was arbitrarily assigned to a longitude (meridian) that passed through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England, and designated as 0° longitude or Greenwich Meridian. It is still the standard for longitude. If you ever travel to Greenwich, you can actually stand on both sides of the line and straddle both the eastern and western hemispheres.

UTC is determined by the International Atomic Time (TAI) and the Universal Time (UT). TAI is a time scale that provides the exact speed our click should tick based on the speed of four hundred atomic clocks around the world. UT, also known as a solar time or astronomical time, is determined by the rotation of the earth. TAI and UT work hand-in-hand and as double-checks for each other. All time zones around the world are expressed as positive or negatives factors of UTC. It is also the standard time used in the aviation industry to avoid confusion. UTC is permanent and never changes for daylight savings; however, the designation of UTC in relation to a region can vary. For example, New York City is UTC-5:00 hours (which we know as Eastern Time Zone). This means that UTC is five hours ahead of New York City. During daylight savings time, NYC becomes UTC-4:00 hours, which simply means UTC is four hours ahead of New York City. Portland, Oregon, which we know as Pacific Standard Time (PST), is UTC-8:00 hours, which makes it eight hours behind UTC.

The original world time standard, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was also based on the prime meridian, and UTC is the successor for GMT. For years, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) was used as the world’s standard time; however, in 1960, the International Radio Consultative Committee conceptualized UTC and formalized it in 1967. GMT is now just a time zone like Eastern Standard Time (EST) or Pacific Standard Time and is used in Britain, Iceland, and some countries in Africa and Western Europe.

How Do Time Zones Work

Time zones were originally based on the longitude of a destination; however, due to commercial, communication, legal, and political interests, time zones are currently based on the boundaries of countries as well as their subdivisions. Most time zones are whole number offsets from the UTC (example UTC-8:00, UTC +6:00), but a few others are offsets by thirty minutes, like IST (Indian Standard Time – example UTC+5:30), and forty-five minutes (UTC+5:45) like Nepal Standard Time.

With all this information, it is easy to get very confused about how time zones work and why they even exist. Since Earth is round and rotates completely every twenty-four hours, not everyone can be on the same exact time. If we were, some places of the world would be completely dark during their daytime hours and bright and sunny at night all the time. If the earth rotates 360 degrees in twenty-four hours, that means it moves just about 15 degrees every hour. With this information, the earth was sectioned in twenty-four parts with each 15-degree rotation equating to an hour difference in time. Over time, and due to logistical and political reasons, time zones followed the countries’ boundaries rather than just the earth’s rotations.

The International Dateline

Another component of time zones is the International Dateline (IDL). This is an imaginary line that runs from the North Pole to the South Pole passing through the middle of the Pacific Ocean and roughly tracing the 180° latitude line of the earth. It is about halfway around the world from the Greenwich Meridian and separates two consecutive calendar days. When traveling westward, travelers must set their clocks forward by twenty-four hours when they cross the IDL to sync with the local time. Conversely, travelers traveling eastwards must “fall back” by twenty-four hours once they cross the IDL.

How Many Times Zones Are There In The World

There are currently about 38 time zones in use. If time zone were based on one time zone per hour, we would have had twenty-four time zones only, but since some regions are offset by just thirty or forty-five minutes, that adds more time zones to the mix. And when we factor in daylight savings time (DST), we get more local time differences. Some countries, like India and China, even though geographically wide, base their time zone on their international boundaries and use one time zone for the entire country, whereas the United States, which is also a wide country, uses different time zones internally.

USA Time Zones

Most of us are familiar with the four-time zones used within the contiguous USA (48 states and District of Columbia), but the United States observes six main time zones with the other two located in Alaska and Hawaii.

• Pacific Standard Time • Mountain Standard Time • Central Standard Time • Eastern Standard Time • Hawaii-Aleutian Standard Time/Hawaii Standard Time) • Alaska Standard Time

Due to the width of the country, some states fall in more than just one-time zone. Currently, thirteen states, including Indiana, Oregon, Kentucky, Idaho, Texas, Nebraska, Kansas, Florida, North Dakota, South Dakota, Michigan, Tennessee, and Alaska have more than one-time zone.

Daylight Saving Time (DST) is observed by all states except in Hawaii and most of Arizona and starts on the second Sunday of March, lasting through the first Sunday of November. During daylight savings, the clock is set forward by an hour and reversed when daylight savings ends. All the time zones (except Hawaii Standard Time) have corresponding DST zones, so Pacific Standard Time turns into Pacific Daylight Time during the daylight savings period.

Apart from these six main time zones, the USA has three other time zones based on the time zones in the five US permanently inhibited territories – Puerto Rico, U.S. Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands. The Atlantic Standard Time Zone (UTC-4) is used in Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands; the Samoa Standard Time (UTC-11) is used in America Samoa; and, the Chamorro Standard Time (UTC+10) is used in Guam and the Northern Mariana Islands.

When you are planning a trip, make sure to check the local times, especially if you’re heading to an exciting USA destination not typically on your radar. Knowing the time differences between your state and a destination state can help you plan your activities better, as well as help you manage jetlag.

Canada Time Zones

There are six time zones in Canada , with corresponding daylight saving times (DST) adjusted by adding one hour to the clock, spanning over four-and-half hour time differences. Although Daylight Savings Time is officially observed from March to November, some parts of the country, like Yukon, Southampton Island, and parts of Saskatchewan, parts of Quebec, and parts of British Columbia do not adjust their time during Daylight Savings . The six main time zones include:

• Pacific Standard Time UTC-8:00 (with corresponding DST) • Mountain Standard Time UTC-7:00 (with corresponding DST) • Central Standard Time UTC-6:00 (with corresponding DST) • Eastern Standard Time UTC-5:00 (with corresponding DST) • Atlantic Standard Time UTC-4:00 (with corresponding DST) • Newfoundland Standard Time UTC-3:30 (with corresponding DST)

Mexico Time Zones

If you’ve traveled to different parts of Mexico, you might have noticed how variable the time zones can be depending on what time of the year and what location you travel to. At first, Mexico was divided into two time zones, but by February 2015, Mexico had four standard time zones similar to time zones in the contiguous US.

• Zona Sureste (Southwest Zone) similar to US Eastern Standard Time • Zona Centro (Central Zone) similar to US Central Time • Zona Pacifico (Pacific Zone) similar to US Mountain Time • Zona Noroeste (Northwest Zone) similar to US Pacific Time

In observance of seasonal changes, some parts of Mexico observe three daylight saving times (DST) – Mountain Daylight Time, Central Daylight Time, and Pacific Daylight Time. The official daylight saving period is from the first Sunday of April through the last Sunday of October; however, clock-times are not changed on the same date across all Mexican time zones, leading to disparity in the time for weeks during the Fall and Spring. Some Mexican states, especially those along the US-Mexico border, sync their clock with the nearest US cities rather than the Mexico time zone where they are geographically located.

Europe Time Zones

Europe generally spans from Iceland to the western part of Russia, and this entire landmass has seven main time zones in Europe (excluding the daylight-saving times) spanning from UTC -1:00 to UTC+5:00. Daylight Savings Time (DST) is coordinated, observed across four time zones, and starts from the last Sunday of March through the last Sunday of October. The furthest time zone on the west, Further Western European Time UTC-1 (with corresponding DST) is observed in the Azores while Further Eastern Time is observed in countries like Turkey, most of western Russia, and Belarus.

Three other time zones – Western European Time, Central European Time, and Eastern Time, all with corresponding DST, are observed in most parts of Europe. Other time zones observed in Europe include Armenia Time/Georgia Time/Azerbaijan/Samara Time, all at UTC+4:00, and West Kazakhstan Time/Yekaterinburg Time, both at UTC+5:00.

There are a few exceptions to the general time zones, including Russia, a transcontinental country spread between Eastern Europe and Northern Asia, which is also the largest country in the world. Due to its massive landmass and width, Russia has eleven time zones spanning from UTC+2:00 to UTC+12:00.

Though the time differences in western, central, and eastern Europe might not be significant, it is still a good idea to check the time difference between home and your destination European city. For instance, Monaco is UTC+1:00 while The United Kingdom is UTC, so knowing that there is an hour difference between both countries can help you plan your travel activities better, especially if you plan to move from one European destination to another.

  Africa Time Zones

There are currently six major time zones in Africa ; however, these time zones are represented by thirteen different names. Going from the westernmost part of Africa to the Easternmost part of Africa, the time zones are offsets of UTC and include:

• Cape Verde Time Zone – UTC-1:00 • Greenwich Mean Time– UTC+0 • West Africa Time – UTC+1:00 • Central Africa Time and South African Standard Time Zones – UTC+2:00 • East Africa Time – UTC+3:00 • Mauritius, Reunion, and Seychelles Time Zone – UTC +4:00

Most African countries do not change the clock for daylight savings, except Morocco, which observes a permanent daylight savings time year-round, excluding Ramadan.

 Australia Time Zones

Australia might be the sixth-largest country by population in the world, about the size of the continental USA, and the only continent that’s also a country, but it is only divided into three different official time zones . Those time zones include:

• Australian Eastern Standard Time (AEST) at UTC +10:00 • Australian Central Standard Time (ACST) at UTC +9:30 • Australian Western Standard Time (AWST) at UTC+ 8:00

Except for Queensland, Western Australia, and the Northern Territory, the rest of Australia observes Daylight Savings Time (DST) starting from the first Sunday of October through the first Sunday in April. The DST corresponds to the eastern and central areas that turn their clocks one hour forward – Australian Eastern Daylight Time and Australian Central Daylight Time. Apart from the physical distance, you might travel when going to Australia from North America, for example, California to Sydney, you do cross the International Date Line when crossing the Pacific Ocean, essentially changing the date by one day.

There is also a hybrid time zone known as the Australian Central Western Standard Time (ACWST) UTC+8:45, and visitors to this part of Australia are reminded with a highway sign to advance their clock by forty-five minutes! Since Australia has some dependencies, the time zones used in these countries vary slightly from those used in mainland Australia, so you will also see Christmas Island Standard (UTC +7:00), and Cocos Island Standard (UTC +6:30) as time zones listed for Australia.

Asia Time Zones

Asia is the largest continent in the world with about sixty percent of the world’s population spread over forty countries within Asia. The number of time zones – eleven different time zones observed within the continent reflect the expanse of the land. Asia observes eleven different time zones spanning from UTC+4:00 to UTC+10:00 with some of the countries ahead of, or behind, other countries of the world by increments of UTC + thirty or forty-five minutes instead of a full hour. With the exception of a few countries like Mongolia, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank, most countries in Asia do not observe Daylight Savings Time either. Even though Asia has eleven official time zones, there is a multitude of abbreviations for the list of time zones within the independent countries, meaning that the same time zone can be abbreviated differently within countries. And if you’ve ever heard of ASEAN Common Time (ACT), it was a proposal for unification of time amongst Association of Southeast Asian Nations member states, but that has failed to pass for many years. For now, since the different time zones make the list of time zones longer than just eleven time zones, it’s best to check the time difference between home and your destination Asian country before your trip. This will help you avoid any surprises as well as be appropriately prepared for jet lag.

 China Time Zones

China is the third-largest country in the world and about as wide as the US and given its size, you might expect to see many time zones as we have in the US, which is the fourth largest country. China spans across five time zones and used five different time zones (UTC+5:30, UTC+6:00, UTC+7:00, UTC+8:00, and UTC+8:30) for telling time until the end of the Chinese Civil War around 1949-1950 when the government decided to observe one time zone - Beijing Time – internationally known as China Standard Time and set at UTC+8:00. When traveling to China, be prepared to enjoy sunsets and sunrise at seemingly all hours of the day, depending on what part you are visiting. And if you are visiting Xinjiang, which is the westernmost region of China, be sure to ask for local time versus Beijing time as this part of China is an exception to the rule and observes a local time that is closer to solar time and about two hours behind Beijing at UTC+6:00.

Changing time zones can cause jetlag and travel fatigue even in the most prepared and experienced traveler. Time zones are why the clock can read differently at the same exact moment in beautiful Cinque Terre, Italy , and Yellowstone National Park . Knowing that time zones exist based on the degree of rotation of Earth is why you would expect the time to be the same in Caramel-by-the-Sea and Laguna Beach , both within geographical proximity in California. Time zones are important for commercial, communication, and logistical reasons. Time zones are why people from different parts of the world can be on a synchronized conference call at the same time based on an agreed-upon time based on UTC/GMT. Time zone based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is extremely important in international civil aviation for flight departures and arrivals. There may be twenty-four ideal time zones and thirty-eight different local time zones in use around the world, and going from one place to another can pose a challenge when trying to figure out the local time, but knowing how and why time zone works, and where to find the current time where you are, will go a long way to understanding and working with time zones.

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Composition Rules and Knowing When to Break Them

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Composition rules and knowing when to break them.

  Composition is an important factor that helps define an image. Mastering the term is also beneficial to help draw viewers into the picture by noticing particular elements that may fall into a perfect composition. In its simplest form, you can break a photo into third lines. That is to say two equal horizontal lines and two equal vertical lines on the frame, resulting in what’s commonly referred to as the ‘Rule of Thirds’. Explaining The Rule of Thirds The Rule of Thirds is about aligning your photographic subject on a third line or an intersection of third lines. Most noticeably, landscape photographers will use this technique when photographing the horizon. When you look at a landscape image taken by a professional, you may notice that the horizon isn’t in the middle of the photograph. Instead, the photographer may position the horizon on either the top third line or the bottom horizontal third line. By doing so, it allows the photographer to either show two-thirds foreground or two-thirds sky in the photograph. However, one must ask, can the rule of thirds ever be broken?Do you have to maintain these guides in every photo to make it an award-winner?The simple answer is no. Read More

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Understanding Time Zones When Traveling Internationally

March 10, 2015

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The Rolling Stones sing, “Time is on my side, yes, it is” – and, since they’ve been around for what seems like 125 years, they just might be right about that!  But if reaching your vacation destination involves crossing the International Date Line and flying through several Time Zones, you might end up feeling that time is definitely not on your side!

If you do any international travel, you should take the ‘time’ to familiarize yourself with these very important terms: Time Zones, Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) / Prime Meridian, the International Date Line (IDL), and the 24-hour clock.  Following is an extremely simplified explanation of these terms:

Simply put, there are 24 Time Zones (based loosely on our 24 hour day) around the globe and each is separated by a one-hour time difference.  The earth is a sphere which is divided into 360 degrees by lines of longitude running north to south.  The earth rotates 360 degrees over a 24 hour period.  Dividing 360 degrees by 24 hours, it follows that the earth turns 15 degrees each hour; therefore, each time zone is 15 degrees wide.  In reality, of course, there is more to it than that.  Factor in Daylight Savings Time and Time Zones that extend beyond that 15 degrees to accommodate country borders or the need for uniformity and the words of the band Chicago may buzz in your head!  “Does anybody really know what time it is?  Does anybody really care?”.

Here’s an example of why you need to care! If it’s 9:30 PM on May 1 when you and your travel gear take off on XYZ Airlines from the west coast of the U.S. or Canada for a 12-15 hour flight to various destinations in Asia, such as Japan or Hong Kong, you might arrive there in the morning 2 calendar days later (May 3).  If you aren’t aware that you’ll be ‘missing’ one entire day (May 2), and you have scheduled a tour for May 2, you’ll be out of luck.

GMT/Prime Meridian (also known as UTC – Universal Time Coordinated)

One of those ‘lines of longitude’, mentioned above, passes through Greenwich, England and is known as the Prime Meridian.  The Time Zone at the Prime Meridian is zero (0 degrees) and each Time Zone around the globe is plus or minus the number of hours from Greenwich time, or Greenwich Mean Time (GMT).

International Date Line

The International Date Line (IDL) is an arbitrary line that runs down the opposite side of the globe from the Prime Meridian.  The date changes at the International Date Line (IDL) so that when it is noon in Greenwich, it is midnight at the International Date Line.  And, vice versa, when it is midnight in Greenwich at the Prime Meridian (0 degrees), it is noon at the International Date Line.  Or…in plain English….when it is Tuesday 2:00 PM in Honolulu, Hawaii; it is Wednesday 10:00 AM in Sydney, Australia as these cities are situated on either side of the IDL.

24-Hour Clock

The times of travel between or within foreign countries are generally displayed on airport arrival & departure boards, schedule displays, boarding passes, etc. using the 24-Hour Clock.  The 24-Hour Clock eliminates the AM/PM distinction and provides a different figure for each hour of the day.  Starting with 0000 (Midnight), a 24-hour day progresses from 0100 (1:00 AM) to 2300 (11:00 PM).  Minutes are indicated in a conventional way so that 0645 is 6:45 AM, 1845 is 6:45 PM and 2319 is 11:19 PM.

It’s easy enough to convert to the 24-Hour Clock by using the following tips:

  • 2:00 AM becomes 0200
  • 5:00 AM becomes 0500
  • 2:00 PM becomes 1400  (2 + 12 = 14)
  • 5:00 PM becomes 1700  (5 + 12 = 17)

Tip:  If you wear a…’timepiece’, as soon as you are settled on the airplane, set it to the current time at your holiday destination.  This helps a little with ‘tricking’ your brain to adjust to the local time it will be when you arrive.  Your phone, computer, tablet, etc. should automatically switch to the local time at your destination.

By familiarizing yourself with these terms, examining your vacation timetable to ensure you know what day/date it will be when you arrive, and adjusting your destination plans accordingly…you and your luggage will be well on your way to a restful and enjoyable holiday!  And…isn’t it about ‘time’ for that??

 Written by Emma Ghattas

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Time Zones: Your Ultimate Guide

Time Zones change all around the world (except for China), and we have the British railways to thank for them.

Time zones are surprisingly complicated. There are only 24 hours in a day, and yet there are more than 24 time zones in this world. Dealing with time zones is a reality of travel - both domestic and international. They can mess with one's circadian rhythm while traveling and lead to jet lag (although that's also partly the pressurization of the airplane's cabin).

People with friends around the world are constantly having to battle with people in different time zones. And it is the bain of setting up international conference calls. To make matters worse, many people don't even refer to their time zone by its international name - but by its local name. E.g. NYC's EST is actually internationally known as UTC -5 (formerly GMT -5). Imagine if everyone did that - so someone from Sydney just said "AEST" and not UTC + 10 (formerly GMT +10) and hung up the phone.

How Time Zones Were Standardized

In the old days, every town would have its own time that could be different from the next. When one had to walk from one city to the next, it didn't matter if their time was 10 minutes different from the time recorded in one's hometown.

In 1675 the Royal Observatory, Greenwich was founded just out of London and they established the Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) - it was just another time kept in England. But that all changed with the advent of the Industrial Revolution and the development of the railways.

  • GMT: First Established In 1675

Railways had to be kept on a consistent time and it wouldn't do if every city had its own time. Eventually, the railways started to use GMT by using portable chronometers and this became standard and called Railway Time in Great Britain.

  • Railways: Scheduled Using GMT

By 1855, 98% of Great Britain's public clocks were using GMT - although it only became legal on August 2, 1880. Before that, there were even some clocks with two-minute hands - one for the local time and one for GMT.

Eventually, all time zones in the world were based on GMT, all time zones are GMT + or - increments of time (normally an hour) depending on their longitude. New Zealand adopted GMT in 1868 with it GMT+ 11 Hours and 30 Minutes.

Related:  15 DIY Hacks To Get Over Jet Lag Fast (5 Things That'll Make It Worse)

Time Zones Splitting Up The World

Today people take it for granted that all the world is offset by increments of an hour (or divisions of an hour) - and not say 6 minutes differentials. Today all time zones are fixed to GMT.

So while the world has the Royal Observatory and train schedules to thank for a fixed point from which to measure time, time zones are still complicated. There are time zones that sometimes don't even follow political borders. In the United States, counties can be in a different time zone to the rest of the state - like the Indiana counties close to Chicago are on Chicago time and not on the rest of the state's time.

  • Hoover Dam: Has Two Time Zones
  • China: Is On Only One Time Zone
  • Russia: Has Eleven Time Zones

While in the USA a state may be split into different time zones, China is in only one time zone. For them, they seek to emphasize that they are a united country and are not divided by time zones. As China is a massive country, the result is the sun can rise and set at some rather odd times in the western part of the country.

While New Zealand is basically in one time zone, it has some small islands offshore that are on a 15 minute time offset for some reason.

Related:  20 Essential Things To Know When Booking An International Flight

The Strange Case Of The International Date Line

The tiny American island of Little Diomede in Alaska's Bering Strait gazes across at the Siberian Big Diomede Island. Between them, is 2.5 miles of water and the International Date Line. Basically, the Russian Big Diomede Island is always "tomorrow."

  • Tomorrow: People Living In Little Diomede See Tomorrow By Looking At The Neighboring Island

Another oddity is the International Date Line that runs through the Pacific. One can fly on a 14 hour and 20-minute flight from Melbourne, Australia to Los Angeles and arrive have to wind one's clock back 4 hours from when one bordered the plane! If one bordered the place at 18.00 Wednesday, one flys for 14.5 hours and arrives at around 14.00 Wednesday. Of course, going the other way and one will lose a day.

Cross The International Date Line:

  • Fly East: Gain A Day
  • Fly West: Lose A Day

This means that it is perfectly possible to celebrate New Year in New Zealand, then board a plane, fly back to last year in Hawaii and celebrate it all over again. Alternatively, one could just walk over the county line or across the Hoover Dam to count the New Year in again.

Next:  New App Helps You Avoid Jet Lag And Adjust To New Time Zones

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Jet lag deters tourists more than distance

This study provides another piece of evidence of the importance of space and location in shaping international economic activity


Time zone differences have a stronger effect on tourism than geographical distance, according to new research from LSE and Danube University Krems, Austria.

This means that tourists, in an effort to avoid jet lag, are more likely to travel further to a country within the same time zone or a country with only a small time difference, than to an equally far country with a larger time zone difference. At the margin, they will on average even prefer a location further away as long as the time zone difference is less.

The research, by Eric Neumayer, Professor of Environment and Development at LSE, and Mathias Czaika, Professor in Migration and Integration at Danube University Krems, Austria, is the first to analyse the effect of time zone differences on international tourist travel over and beyond the effect of geographical distance. Previous studies have already shown that international trade and foreign direct investment are negatively affected by time zone differences because of two main reasons: the reduction of overlap in normal business hours and the negative impact on the well-being of individuals that travelling across time zones can have.

The researchers studied total annual arrivals and overnight stays between pairs of countries in a global sample over 1995-2013. It found that international tourist arrivals between two countries are reduced by an average of 11.6 per cent per hour time difference.

For countries such as Russia, Canada and the US which stretch over more than one time zone, the respective time zone for the research was generated via the mean of all its time zones. China insists on one single time zone throughout despite a large East-West extension, with the consequence that some parts of the country are well above two hours off their solar time given their longitudinal position. Other countries, such as Argentina and Spain, adopt time zones that are inconsistent with their longitudinal coordinate in order to share a time zone with an important trading or political partner. As a consequence, not a single time zone follows vertical longitudinal lines on a world map, as they would if the time zone followed solar time, but all of them exhibit bulges on either side.

The researchers estimate that a time zone difference of eight hours reduces international tourism by about 88 per cent. After eight hours, additional hours of time difference are not statistically significantly different from the effect at eight hours. One possible interpretation is that after the eight hours threshold, additional hours no longer make much difference since the circadian clock (one’s bio-physical clock) is already completely out of tune with the time in the destination country.

It concludes: “This study provides another piece of evidence of the importance of space and location in shaping international economic activity. Time zone differences impose an important constraint on the extent to which tourism destinations can convert latent demand for tourism from source countries into actual arrivals if these source countries are located in different time zones.”

On the negative impact of time zone differences on international tourism is published in the journal Current Issues in Tourism.

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Tips for Traveling Between Different Time Zones

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Do you love to travel? If so, you probably have experienced some challenges when traveling between different time zones, such as jet lag and schedule conflicts. But you don't have to experience these things. Although it is quite difficult to travel and deal with many time zones, there are some tips for traveling and life hacks that you can follow to overcome these challenges.

Tips for Traveling: Adjusting to A New Time Zone

Traveling between different time zones is both exciting and challenging. It is fun because you know you can visit a new place far from your home. However, it is challenging because you have to deal with another time zone. For instance, it could be daytime when you left your area, but it is night time when you arrived at your destination. 

No matter how much time difference you encounter, your body might experience some adverse effects. This is because traveling to a different time zone can disturb your circadian rhythm, leading to jet lag. If you want to overcome jet lag, schedule conflicts, or any problems with your travel, you may consider the following tips:

Enjoy the natural light.

It is important to get some natural light because it is essential to reset your body clock. Therefore, after arriving at your destination, make sure to get 15 to 30 minutes of direct sunlight.

Get some rest if you need to.

Traveling between different time zones can cause you discomfort or headache. Some people might tell you to stay awake on the flight because it is better to rest using the new time zone. However, it might worsen your condition because you are forcing yourself not to sleep. So it is still better to get some rest.

Plan before your trip.

Before you leave your country or state, you need to determine how much you'll need to shift your sleep and wake time. Doing so will help you become in sync after you arrive at your destination. Consider going to bed or getting up earlier, or vice-versa but it should depend on the direction you'll be traveling in. This way, your body can quickly adapt to the new time zone. 

Seek medication.

There is nothing wrong when seeking professional help. Before your departure, you can meet your doctor and talk about the medication you can take to avoid jet lag. But make sure to talk about the pros and cons with your doctor so that you'll know if seeking medicine is the best option for you. 

Remember that taking a low dose of melatonin several hours before bedtime can help you align your circadian rhythm to the new time zone. You may also consider higher doses to improve your sleep. If you want to take sleeping pills, make sure your doctor recommends them.

Jet lag and schedule conflicts are just some of the problems you might encounter when traveling between different time zones. Worry not because you can overcome these challenges with the tips for traveling mentioned earlier. Remember, every problem has a solution, so don't let these challenges ruin your trip.

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Passing Thru - For the Curious and Thoughtful Traveler

Tips For Managing Different Time Zones When Traveling

By: Author Betsy Wuebker

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Different countries around the world use different time zones. This means that while traveling you often have to train your body to get used to eating and sleeping at different times. 

A lot of people experience ‘jet lag’ when traveling through multiple time zones. This when your body fails to adjust properly, resulting in you feeling sleepy during the day. Knowing how to adjust properly is important so that the first few days of your trip aren’t wasted due to being too tired.

When it comes to contacting people back home, it could also be important to keep track of different time zones. This is important so that you don’t call friends and family at inappropriate times. 

All in all, different time zones can present various challenges. This post offers a few tips on how to manage different time zones effectively when traveling. 

Consider adjusting your sleep schedule before you travel

If you’re traveling somewhere that is in a completely different time zone such as Australia or the US, it could be worth trying to adjust your sleep schedule before you set off to travel to reduce jet lag.

 For example, if you’re traveling somewhere that is several hours ahead, it may be worth going to bed and getting up a little bit earlier in order to adjust. Similarly, if you’re traveling somewhere that is a few hours behind and you’re typically an early riser, you may want to try going to bed a bit later and getting up later a couple nights before you fly (providing you don’t have to get up for work early or that you don’t have an early flight!).

Avoid taking a nap when you arrive

After a long sleepless flight, you may be tempted to take a nap in your hotel room as soon as you arrive. This is fine if you arrive at your hotel at night as you can then easily adjust your sleep schedule. However, if you arrive in the morning or the afternoon, it could be worth forcing yourself to stay awake until the evening. A common mistake people make is taking a nap at 3AM when they arrive and then waking up at midnight – your whole sleep schedule is then messed up and you could end up being exhausted for the first few days as you try to readjust your schedule.

It will be a challenge staying awake for that first day, however it will prevent you wasting the first few days of your trip due to being shattered, so it’s worth struggling through.

Eat breakfast if you arrive in the morning

If you arrive at your destination in the morning, consider eating some breakfast. Our body clock relies a lot on routine – by eating familiar meals at certain times, you may be able to quickly reprogramme your body to get used to the new time zone. Don’t try to prepare dinner in the morning (even if it would be your usual dinner time back home) as this will screw up your whole body clock and make you more likely to want to sleep in the afternoon.

Stay hydrated

A lot of the tiredness caused by jet lag isn’t just due to changing time zones – dehydration is a common cause of jet lag too. You’re more likely to get dehydrated on a plane due to the dry cabin air. This dehydration could make you more tired when you arrive at your destination, encouraging you to take an unwanted nap.

Make an effort to drink lots of water before, during and after your flight. Be wary of drinking lots of alcoholic drinks of coffee on the plane – these drinks can further dehydrate you. If you are going to have some alcohol or coffee, try to pair this with some water.

Consider sleep supplements

If you’re traveling east, you’ll have to get used to going to sleep earlier. It can sometimes be difficult adjusting to an earlier bedtime (especially if you’ve had an early morning flight – 10pm may still feel like the afternoon). 

You could consider trying to take some sleep supplements to help you sleep that first night, especially if you’ve got activities planned the next morning. This will prevent the urge to stay up late and lie in the next day. Some people also take sleep supplements to help them sleep on the plane.

Check the time zone back home online

If you’re going to call friends or family members back home, make sure to look up the time back home before you call. You don’t want to wake someone in the middle of the night with a phone call (unless it’s very urgent) – consider trying to schedule a time that is good for both of you. 

You can check the time zone back home online if you have access to wi-fi – sites like Google allow you to easily check different time zones. There are also apps that help you compare times in different countries so that you know when to make a call.  

Consider a GMT or dual time watch

Another way to quickly keep track of two different time zones is to use a GMT or dual time watch. These watches are able to display two different times at once so that you can easily track the time in your destination and the time back home.

This GMT vs dual time watches guide explains the difference between the two watches. Being able to check a watch may be more convenient than checking your phone. 

Be wary of countries with multiple time zones

Some countries contain multiple time zones within them such as Australia, Russia, the US and Brazil. When traveling across these countries, it can be important to take into account the different time zones, especially if you have to grab a flight or get a bus or train at a specific time. 

If you need to be somewhere by a certain time, consider whether it’s in your time or their time. Any booking confirmation documents will usually detail this.

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The Ultimate Guide To Adjusting To Different Time Zones

  • by Jessica Timmons
  • Updated: November 17, 2023

Table of Contents

traveling through different time zones on a plane

If you’ve ever found yourself wide awake in the middle of the night (or ready to snooze mid-afternoon) after traveling from one time zone to another, you’re intimately familiar with jet lag . Your body’s circadian rhythm is working based on the time at home, not local time. And that can have pretty cascading effects, at least for a few days. But all is not lost! We asked a few sleep experts how to adjust to different time zones so you can get your sleep/wake cycle back up to speed.

Why Is It Difficult Adjusting To Different Time Zones When Traveling? 

It all comes down to that amazing mechanism — your circadian rhythm. This is the system that dictates when you feel tired and when you feel awake and alert, and it’s synced to the time zone where you live. 

“It uses environmental and behavioral cues to understand the time of the day — for example, the timing of sunrise and sunset, the time we eat meals, the work schedule, exercise,” explains Dr. Carleara Weiss , a member of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and sleep advisor to Pluto Pillow . But the biggest cue is what’s known as photoperiod, or the duration of natural light between sunrise and sunset. 

“The changes in photoperiod desynchronize our circadian rhythm when we travel across different zones,” says Weiss. In other words, your internal clock no longer matches up with the light cycle in the new time zone, meaning your energy levels will correlate with the time zone you came from rather than the one you’re in. This effect can leave you feeling wired at night and sleepy during the day.   

Additionally, the length and direction of travel across time zones will have a bigger impact the farther you go. “Even small changes in time zone influence our physiology; however, more dramatic changes — more than six hours — tend to impose more limitations until our bodies adjust to the new photoperiod at the new location,” Weiss explains.

Something else to keep in mind: “It’s more difficult to adjust when you travel east and ‘lose’ time than when you travel west and ‘gain’ time,” says Stephen Light, certified sleep science coach and CEO/co-owner of Nolah Technologies . “It’s harder to advance your internal clock and feel tired earlier than it is to delay your internal clock and stay alert later.”

How Long Does It Take To Adjust To A New Time Zone? 

The standard rule of thumb is that it takes the body one day to adjust to every hour of time zone difference. Still, Light cautions that there isn’t currently enough research to validate this conventional wisdom, so use it as a benchmark to help plan ahead for travel. Check out our jet lag calculator for a personal sleep plan that will help you reduce travel fatigue before you jet off.

Is Changing Time Zones Bad For Our Health? 

We won’t lie — you may not feel great when you change time zones. “Jet lag, and this circadian rhythm desynchronization, has negative impacts on health, including fatigue, headache, dehydration, changes in appetite, constipation or diarrhea, sleep disturbances, insomnia, and mood swings ,” says Weiss.

Fortunately, these effects are usually temporary and only linger before your internal clock readjusts based on exterior signals in the new environment. “ Jet lag usually only has long-term health effects for those who change time zones often —  for example, pilots, flight attendants, and frequent business travelers,” Light explains. “It can lead to chronic insomnia and circadian rhythm disorders.”

Tips for Adjusting To A New Time Zone

  • Plan ahead. Weiss says it’s really important to adjust bedtime and wake-up time to the new time zone in the days before your trip. Do it gradually using 30-minute increments. And use our jet lag calculator to get started!
  • Stay awake until you’re close to bedtime in your final destination. It might be challenging to stay awake, but doing so means you can fall asleep at the appropriate time in the new environment, which may help get your circadian rhythm back on track a little faster.
  • Get comfortable on the plane, says Dr. Shelby Harris, Sleepopolis’ director of sleep health. This will give you the best chance at catching up on those precious zzz’s before you hit the ground running in your new time zone. However, Harris says it’s important to use naps “thoughtfully,” taking into consideration the time zone you’re heading toward to help you get through the day once you land.
  • Time your meals. Eating and digestion promote wakefulness and affect your circadian rhythm. “To adjust to a time zone, try to eat breakfast, lunch, and dinner at your normal times based on the local clock,” advises Light.
  • Try some sleep remedies to get yourself back on track. Remedies like melatonin , lavender , and tart cherry juice may help signal your body that it’s time to doze off at the appropriate local time.
  • Avoid alcohol. Alcohol may work in the short-term to make you nod off, but research shows it lowers sleep quality and efficiency.
  • Consider using melatonin. The Mayo Clinic says melatonin* has been shown to help people get to sleep at times outside of their typical sleep schedules, making it a good option for jet-lagged travelers. 
  • Set yourself up for success at bedtime that first night with proper sleep hygiene. That means managing light, sound , and temperature as much as possible. You might also consider bringing a few small things along on your trip to make your temporary digs feel more familiar. Check out our tips for better sleep in a hotel.

The Last Word From Sleepopolis

Adjusting to different time zones when you travel has its side effects, but they won’t last forever. And with a little planning before and during your trip, you can help your circadian rhythm adjust quickly so you can focus on the important stuff — enjoying your holiday!

*Restrictions and regulations on supplements may vary by location. If you ever have any questions or concerns about a product you’re using, contact your doctor.

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Jessica Timmons

Jessica Timmons

ExO Insight

Time Travel: The Science of Time Zones

Does time travel make one younger? Actually yes! A fun fact about the topic is that you get older slower than those who do not fly. This process is explained by natural science based on spectral relativity.

Beatrice Barbazzeni

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As a scientist, I frequently happen to have digital worldwide research collaborations or be invited to global conferences and events. Recently, I traveled to San Francisco (CA, USA) because I had the opportunity to present my research work at the Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society . It is my third time in the USA, for the same reason, and if you think it is a long trip from Germany, where I currently work. Therefore, I had enough time to think about what would have been an excellent topic to discuss and write about on the flight. By looking at the display located right in front of my face. The display indicated the local time of the departure city and the current time of the arrival city. San Francisco is 9 hours backward compared to Germany. Therefore, I started questioning how time zones work across the world, why this event happens, and what the effects are on human life and habits.

Furthermore, based on my regular experience having Zoom meetings with the USA, I was thinking, “do people in the USA age later than people in the EU?” and “When I text or call a USA colleague, am I doing it in the future?” “Are they living in the present or still in the past?”

These were curious questions about time that I needed to answer. And while doing so, the best way was to write an article about it. So, if you are a curious explorer like I am, hang on and read this.

What are time zones?

Why do we have different time zones?

A good way to understand time zones is to start with the question, “How long does it take the Earth to make one full rotation on its axis?

Our planet Earth has the shape of a sphere that spins on an imaginary pole (axis), and every 24 hours, it makes a complete rotation around it. Thus, a complete rotation equals a day. However, during this rotation, some parts of the Earth will be exposed to light while others to darkness. During this movement, day and night are defined. For example, as your location on Earth rotates into the sunlight, you see the sunrise, whereas, in a rotation out of sunlight, you would see the sunset . Therefore, time zones are needed to enter and exit daylight at different times. Otherwise, a specific time (e.g., noon) would be in the middle of the day in some locations, but it might also be early morning or night in others.

Living in time zones is certainly not a new topic, but compared to centuries ago, today, in a fully connected world, this fact becomes more complicated and needs organization. Indeed, when people started to travel across North America by train , train stations had to match 75 time zones! Thus, to solve this problem, in the late 1800s, scientists proposed the “standard time,” and by studying the movement of the Earth, they created a zone map of the world. While rotating around its axis, every 60 minutes, the Earth moves about 15 degrees. Thus, after 24 hours (one day), it completes a full rotation of 360 degrees. Based on this concept, the Earth was divided into 24 time zones, and each would be 15 degrees of longitude wide. Moreover, at the equator level, the distance between zones is the greatest, which gets shorter at the pole locations due to the planet's curvature. In addition, the equator is 24,902 miles long, and the distance between zones at the equator is 1,038 miles (approximately).

How does time work?

What is Greenwich ? The imaginary lines dividing these zones begin at Greenwich (a suburb of London). The primary line is called the prime meridian , and this longitude dividing line is the angular distance between the prime meridian at Greenwich and any other meridian points. Hence, this reference time at Greenwich is called Greenwich Mean Time (GMT). For example, moving 15 degrees to the west from Greenwich would shift into one hour earlier, whereas moving to the east an hour later. However, some countries (e.g., China) did not accept the standard time, and instead, they preferred to set their own time. Other countries also adopted different systems that modify the time zones by smaller increments (e.g., 15 or 30 minutes). Therefore, today we experience more zones than the standard 24 .

So how do time zones work across the world? For example, if you live in San Francisco (GMT - 7) and I live in Germany (GMT + 2), we have 9 hours difference. When you wake up at 7 am, I would be in the middle of my afternoon (4 pm).  However, in the continental United States, there are four time zones (Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific), and each of these locations also has different time zones. Thus, if you live in New York (GMT - 4), we have a 6 hours difference.

GMT or UTC? What is the reference?

I previously described what GMT is and how time zones are defined based on it. However, the Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) is often used now. Thus, what is their difference ?

GMT refers to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, and it is a system initially developed in 1850 to track time according to the Earth’s rotation. UTC is not a time zone but an atomic time scale that approximates GMT developed in 1970. The UTC system is the International Atomic time (TAI), with leap seconds added at irregular intervals to compensate for the Earth’s slowing rotation . Nevertheless, it refers to the mean solar time at Greenwich. This video explains the history of time zones worldwide and how GMT and UTC were used.

One hour backward and forward

Lastly, if time zones look complicated, there is something more that may exacerbate things even more. However, this is the daily light saving time (DST), which is considered just in some countries. DST is not a time zone, but it requires some countries and states to set the clock one hour forward or backward from the standard time . In short, DST would allow better use of daily light. Hence, setting the clock one hour earlier in autumn would shift that hour from the evening to the morning. Viceversa, placing one hour later in spring would guarantee one more hour of light in the evening. However, not being used to DST might affect the circadian rhythm by altering the body clock and therefore causing sleep disturbances . So, those countries that apply DST should adopt a healthy lifestyle that recommends attention to sleeping enough.

To know more about time zones and their science, read here .

You can find a list of time zones by country here .

Do time zones influence our health and aging process?

“Traveling allows you to become so many different versions of yourself” (Unknown)

UTC, CEST, PST, EAST… Different countries, different times. Hence my question was, “traveling from country A to country B, where the difference is 9 hours, would affect my age?” Let’s suppose I turn 30 on day X in country A, but traveling to country B, is still day Y. Am I 30 also in country B?

Legally it might make a difference. Thus, I can be of full age in one country but fly to another not being full age yet. So, does time travel make one younger? Actually yes! A fun fact about the topic is that you get older slower than people who do not fly. This process is explained by natural science based on spectral relativity. In this article , the twin paradox is presented to further clarify this event from physics, time dilation , and the principles of relativity .

What about sleep?

Recent research published in the Journal of Health Economics [1] found that living on the wrong side of a time zone can negatively influence health and a person’s wallet. The problem might be related to the prolonged natural light in the evening hours. Indeed, the sunset is a powerful biological trigger because it allows the body to release melatonin (i.e., a hormone that initiates drowsiness). Therefore, those who live on the eastern side of the time zone, where the sun sets earlier than on the western side, tend to go to sleep earlier. Changes in bedtimes would affect a person’s physical and economic well-being . The study suggests that those who live in locations with a later sunset went to sleep, on average, 19 minutes later than people with earlier sunsets. However, going to bed later does not change the time you wake up (e.g., going to work or school) [2], which translates to 115 hours of sleep deprivation a year. “Individuals on the late sunset side of a time zone boundary are more likely to be sleep-deprived, more likely to sleep less than 6 hours, and less likely to sleep at least 8 hours,” commented the authors . “The effects are larger among individuals with early working schedules and individuals with children of school age.” [2]

Furthermore, individuals who live on the late side of the sunset across the USA time zones were more likely to be overweight and obese. In addition, diabetes was also more prevalent. Likewise higher risk for heart attack and breast cancer was shown. Sleep deprivation would also affect productivity and, thus, the general economy [2]. The bright side of late sunset? People may enjoy more daily light where an extra hour of sunlight for recreation may compensate for the lack of sleep. Hence, “As long work hours, work schedules, school start times, and the timing of TV shows can create conflicts between our biological rhythms and social timing, our findings suggest that reshaping social schedules in ways that promote sleeping may have non-trivial effects on health and economic performance,” said Giuntella and Mazzonna, authors of this research study. [2]

The planet Earth with its rotation is an incredible phenomenon, and thanks to scientists, we understand how to track the time across countries and be fully connected. In addition, knowing how time zones might affect health might enhance awareness of establishing new habits and lifestyles.

On which side of the world are you? And which is your time zone?

“There’s a sunrise and a sunset every single day, and they’re absolutely free. Don’t miss so many of them” ( Jo Walton)

tourism time zones


  • Osea Giuntella, Fabrizio Mazzonna, Sunset time and the economic effects of social jetlag: evidence from US time zone borders, Journal of Health Economics, Volume 65,2019, Pages 210-226, ISSN 0167-6296, .
  • Ingrham, C. (2019). How living on the wrong side of a time zone can be hazardous to your health. The Washington Post. Available at: [Accessed on April 29]

tourism time zones

Beatrice Barbazzeni

Beatrice is a Ph.D. student in Neuroscience aimed to achieve her MTP with discipline, perseverance and grit:“empower inner potential leading to the growth of exponential winners".

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Tourism Notes Grade 12 - Tourism Grade 12 Study Guide

Tour planning.

❖ Itinerary – is a detailed plan of the tourist’s journey. ❖ Tourist profile – is an indication of the tourists’ wants and needs. ❖ Element of a client profile

➢ Name, Gender, Age, Budget, Nationality, Location, Occupation, Purpose of visit, Type of tourist, Special needs

❖ Route planning – Why it is important when compiling a tour plan?

➢ It saves time, so that they can spend less time on travelling and more time on activities and attractions. ➢ It is logical and easy to follow ➢ Its economical

❖ Importance of having a budget in place when preparing a tour plan

➢ To be able to know all the different costs that they will have when they embark on their journey. ➢ A budget will help the tourist plan their trip effectively.

❖ Aspects /element of an itinerary

➢ Accommodation ➢ Transport ➢ Attractions and activities ➢ Meals ➢ Budget ➢ Number of people travelling ➢ Route to be taken ➢ Time of year ➢ No. of days

Concepts: ❖ Time zone – is a region on the earth where all the countries have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ❖ Greenwich – is the base from which all time is calculated. ❖ Equator – is an imaginary line around the Earth that is the same distance from the North and South Poles. ❖ Season- is any of the four seasons of the year created by the annual change in the weather. ❖ Standard time- is the uniform time that is used by all countries using the same line of longitude. ❖ Local time – is the actual time according to the position of the sun. ❖ Elapsed time also known as flying time – is the time spent on a flight.

Time calculations

Step 1 ❖ Identify time zones of countries in question.

Step 2 ❖ SSS DSA to find the time difference in time

Step 3 ❖ Is a country with a question mark AHEAD or BEHIND? ❖ If a country with a question mark is AHEAD you ADD difference. ❖ If a country with a question mark is BEHIND you SUBTRACT the difference.

Step 4 ❖ You Always ADD the flight time when calculating the ARRIVAL. ❖ You Always SUBTRACT the flight time when calculating the DEPARTURE.

Step 5 ❖ When calculating the ARRIVAL TIME you ADD 1hr of DST if the country in question is practising DST at that time. ❖ When calculating the ARRIVAL TIME you SUBTRACT 1hr of DST if the country with time (departure country) is practising DST at that time. ❖ When calculating the DEPARTURE TIME you SUBTRACT 1hr of DST if the country in question is practising DST at that time. ❖ When calculating the DEPARTURE TIME you ADD 1hr of DST if the country with time is practising DST at that time.

Daylight Saving Time ❖ Daylight Saving Time is the practice of adjusting the clock one hour ahead in summer.

Reasons for practising daylight saving time/ Benefits of practising DST ❖ It increases productivity ❖ Boosts tourism as more people are able to engage in outdoor activities. ❖ Helps to reduce crime ❖ Helps save energy as fewer lights are needed during working hours.

Impacts of DST on travel planning ❖ A tourist must be able to calculate the correct time of arrival in a country practising DST. ❖ The tourist might miss a connecting flight by 1 hour if DST was not considered. ❖ To publish timetables and travel schedules with the correct times.

Jet lag ❖ Jet lag is a physical condition caused by crossing many time zones during the flight. ❖ Jet fatigue is the discomfort one feels from being in a confined space for a long time.

Symptoms ❖ Disturbed sleeping patterns ❖ Headache ❖ Lack of energy

How to prevent jet lag? ❖ Change the sleeping routine ❖ Drink lots of fluids, especially water ❖ Rest during the flight by taking short naps. ❖ Avoid alcohol and caffeine ❖ Keep active by walking around the cabin in order to stretch your hands and legs.


Precautions and vaccinations

  • Malaria – an infectious disease caused by being bitten by a mosquito carrying the parasite. ❖ Symptoms – flu-like symptoms, headaches, vomiting ❖ Prevent – Take anti-malaria tablets, use a mosquito repellent
  •  Cholera – is a bacterial infection that passes into the body when one drinks infected water. ❖ Symptoms – Diarrhoea, vomiting, dehydration ❖ Prevent – use sealed bottled water, boil water before using it.
  • Compulsory vaccinations and recommended vaccinations ❖ Compulsory vaccinations are regulated according to identified threats found in some countries. To contain the spreading of a high risk disease. ❖ Recommended vaccinations are just precautionary measure to ensure the health of individual tourists and are optional. Are not a measure for high risk diseases.

Places where tourists can get healthcare information: ❖ Internet ❖ Travel clinics ❖ Travel agencies ❖ Tourism Information offices ❖ Airports ❖ Libraries ❖ Travel magazines ❖ Travel websites


On the street ❖ Do not display your valuables ❖ Do not accept lifts from strangers. ❖ Use credit cards or carry small amounts of cash.

In the car ❖ Do not give lifts to strangers. ❖ Never display your valuables in the car. ❖ Drive within the speed limit of the road.

In the hotel ❖ Do not leave your luggage unattended. ❖ Keep your room door locked at all times. ❖ Check who is at the door before opening it. ❖ Check your credit card if you use it in the hotel.

At the airport ❖ Always keep your bags where you can see them. ❖ Make sure all your bags have locks. ❖ Do not allow anyone to check your bags except for designated security officers. ❖ Don’t carry goods through customs of a stranger.

In public places ❖ Be aware of your surroundings. ❖ Become familiar with the local police services. ❖ Ensure you use registered qualified guides.

After dark ❖ Avoid isolated places at night. ❖ Always travel in groups. ❖ Use well-known public transport. ❖ Ensure that your cell phone is charged.


  • Proof of identity
  • Two size photographs
  • Visa ❖ A visa is an endorsement on a passport that gives a traveller permission to be in another country for a specified period. ❖ Issued by Consulate or Embassy ❖ Requirements: ➢Valid passport ➢Specific visa fee ➢Return air ticket ➢Two passport sized photographs ➢Proof of sufficient financial means ❖ Visa to apply for to gain access to England and France – Schengen visa Advantages of using Schengen visa / multi-visa ➢ Saves money because you only pay for one visa. ➢ Saves time because you don’t visit different embassies to apply for the different visas.
  • International Driver’s Permit/Licence ❖ IDP can be obtained from AA (Automobile Association) ❖ Requirement needed to obtain International Driver’s Permit: ➢Valid driver’s licence, ➢2 photographs, ➢ Fees, ➢Identity document, ➢Application form, ➢Proof of residence. ❖ Functions of IDP ➢ Provides translation of the South African driver’s licence in several different languages. ➢ Helps the tourist to rent a vehicle in another country and obtain travel insurance.
  • Health certificate / Yellow Fever certificate ❖ Health certificate can be obtained from TRAVEL CLINICS


❖ Customs office - is the authority that is responsible for monitoring the movement into and out of border areas. ❖ Customs - is the check point where luggage is checked for the carrying of any illegal or prohibited goods. ❖ Immigration - is the check point where all travel documentation is checked. ❖ Green Channel – channel at which nothing need to be declared. ❖ Red Channel – channel at which goods need to be declared. ❖ Duty free goods – goods that don’t have tax added to their price. ❖ Restricted goods – goods that can be carried by following strict rules that govern the carrying of these items. ❖ Prohibited goods – goods that cannot be carried by the passenger under any circumstances.

FOREIGN EXCHANGE ❖ GDP – Gross Domestic Product is a total value of all goods and services produced in a country in one year. ❖ Currency – another name for money. ❖ Foreign currency – money from another country. ❖ Exchange Rate – the value of one currency expressed in terms of another. ❖ Foreign exchange – the process of converting one currency to another currency. ❖ Fluctuations – the process whereby the value of money changes from time to time. Changes in the value of the exchange rate follow an upwards or downwards (strengthen and weakens) trend over an extended period of time. ❖ BBR – Bank Buying Rate is the rate used by the bank to buy foreign currency. ❖ BSR – Bank Selling Rate is the rate used by the bank to sell foreign currency.

Benefits of a healthy GDP A healthy GDP results in ❖ Job creations ❖ Skills development ❖ Infrastructure development ❖ Great output of export ❖ Attract investment

How tourism contribute to the GDP of the country ❖ Using tourism products and services results in increase of taxes and levies which contribute to the GDP. ❖ Standards of living will be improved through money directly and indirectly earned by tourism. ❖ It will set the multiplier effect into motion, creating job and entrepreneurial opportunities thereby improving the standards of living. ❖ It contributes through infrastructural development. ❖ Skills development can be encouraged.

Causes for the Rand Fluctuation ❖ Economic upsets ❖ Strikes ❖ Labour unrest ❖ Global Events ❖ Seasonality ❖ Political changes

The Impact of weak rand on Inbound and outbound tourism ❖ Inbound- Increase of foreign visitors to South Africa. Increase in tourism spending- more value for money. Increase in length of stay. ❖ Outbound- Fewer South Africans choose to travel overseas because it is expensive. Tourists spend less at international destinations. More choose to travel domestically – increase in domestic travel.

Advantages of using EUR in European countries ❖ To simplify travelling and spending in neighbouring countries. ❖ To become a strong currency in the global market place, currency is stronger than other currencies. ❖ To strengthen the regional economy.

❖ An icon is a significant feature of a country that makes that country famous all over the world. ❖ An attraction could be anything that causes tourists to visit a destination.

Ways which increasing number of visitors to a particular icon or attraction lead to economic growth in South Africa ❖ The tourism services providers make a profit, setting the multiplier effect into motion. ❖ Leads to increase in job opportunities, infrastructure development, rise of new businesses and expansion of existing establishments, ❖ Citizens benefit directly or indirectly due to the increased number of tourists entering the country. ❖ Earn valuable foreign exchange.

Factors contributing to the success of a tourist attraction ❖ Excellent marketing at both local and international level ❖ Sustainable and responsible management plans ❖ Efficiency and ethical behaviour of staff and management ❖ Positive experience of visitors ❖ Safety and crime prevention ❖ General appearance and upkeep of the attraction ❖ Considering the needs of people with disabilities and universal access

Characteristics of a successful tourist attraction ❖ Actual visitor number exceed target number ❖ Repeat visits ❖ Income generated exceeds target figures ❖ Positive impact on the local community and the environment


UNESCO – United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation

Main aim of UNESCO ❖ To contribute to peace and security in the world and by bringing the nations of the world together. ❖ To declare and protect world heritage sites.

Functions of UNESCO ❖ Constant monitoring to maintain and protect the status of the World Heritage Sites. ❖ Provide support in terms of management plans. ❖ Promote co-operation and development ❖ Assistance with upgrading of facilities in the event of an unforeseen occurrence. ❖ Encourage people to nominate sites to be included in the World Heritage Site list.

  • Cradle of Humankind (Fossil Hominid Sites) – Cultural site ❖ Declared in 1999 ❖ Found in Gauteng and North West Province and Limpopo ❖ Contains evidence of fossil remains dating back millions of years. ❖ Criteria: (iii)(vi) ❖ Criterion (iii): The nominated serial site bears exceptional testimony to some of the most important Australopithecine specimens dating back more than 3.5 million years. ❖ Criterion (vi): The serially nominated sites are situated in unique natural settings that have created a suitable environment for the capture and preservation of human and animal remains that have allowed scientists a window into the past.
  • Robben Island – Cultural site ❖ Declared in 1999 ❖ Found in Western Cape ❖ Buildings on Robben Island bear unusual evidence to our history. ❖ It was once used as a hospital, military base and prison. ❖ Robben Island symbolises freedom and democracy over oppression stemming from our history of apartheid which signifies universal significance. ❖ Criteria: (iii) (vi) ❖ Criterion (iii): The building of Robben Island bear eloquent witness to its sombre history. ❖ Criterion (vi): Robben Island and its prison buildings symbolise the triumph of the human spirit, of freedom and of democracy over oppression.
  • Mapungubwe Cultural Landscape – Cultural site ❖ Declared in 2003 ❖ Found in Limpopo Province ❖ Represents the Iron Age and is the site where the golden rhinoceros was found. ❖ Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv)(v) ❖ Criterion (ii): Contains evidence of human cultural activities, over a period of time that led to cultural and social changes between the AD 900 and 1300. ❖ Criterion (iii): Remains in the area serve as evidence to the growth and decline of the culture/ civilisation which existed in the Mapungubwe state. ❖ Criterion (iv): Mapungubwe served as a powerful trading state through East African ports with Arabia and India. ❖ Criterion (v): The remains in the Mapungubwe graphically illustrate the impact of climate change and record the growth and then decline of the Kingdom of Mapungubwe as a clear record of a culture that became vulnerable to irreversible change.
  • Isimangaliso Wetland Park – Natural site ❖ Declared in 1999 ❖ Found in KwaZulu Natal ❖ Criteria: (vii)(ix)(x) ❖ Criterion (vii): The site is geographically diverse with superlative scenic vistas along its 220km coast. ❖ Criterion (ix): This site contains sensitive ecosystem from Africa’s marine, wetland and savannah environments. ❖ Criterion (x): A coastal site with the largest biodiverse estuarine system in the Southern Hemisphere.
  • Cape Floral Region Protected Areas – Natural Site ❖ Declared in 2004 ❖ Found in Western Cape and Eastern Cape Provinces ❖ Criteria: (ix)(x) ❖ Criterion (ix): Representing ongoing ecological and biological processes associated with the evolution of the unique Fynbos biome / the fynbos species are only found in this area of South Africa, the only habitat for this flora in the world. ❖ Criterion (x): It is one of the richest areas for plants when compared to any similar sized are in the world. It is one of the world’s 35 biodiversity hotspots.
  • Vredefort Dome – Natural site ❖ Declared in 2005 ❖ Found in Free State and North West Provinces ❖ Meteorite hit the earth thousands of years ago creating the largest meteorite impact site in the world. ❖ Criteria: (viii) ❖ Criterion (viii): Vredefort Dome is the oldest, largest, and most deeply eroded complex meteorite impact structure in the world.
  • UKhahlamba Drakensberg Park – Mixed site ❖ Declared in 2000 ❖ Found between KwaZulu Natal ❖ A high-altitude site with rolling grasslands, steep-sided river valleys, rocky gorges and examples of rock art. ❖ Criteria: (i)(iii)(vii)(x) ❖ Criterion (i): It is the largest and most concentrated group of rock paintings in Africa south of the Sahara. ❖ Criterion (iii): The San people lived in the mountainous area for more than four millennia, leaving behind them a corpus of outstanding rock art, providing a unique testimony which throws much light on their way of life and their beliefs. ❖ Criterion (vii): A high-altitude site with rolling grasslands, steep-sided river valleys, rocky gorges also contribute to the beauty of the site. ❖ Criterion (x): The property contains significant natural habitats for in situ conservation of biological diversity.
  • Richtersveld Cultural and Botanical Landscape – Cultural site ❖ Declared in 2007 ❖ Found in Northern Cape ❖ Criteria: (iv)(v) ❖ Criterion (iv): An outstanding example of a landscape which illustrates an important stage in human history of the Nama people. ❖ Criterion (v): Cultural site protects the living heritage of the Nama people.
  • = Khomani Cultural Landscape – Cultural Site ❖ Declared in 2017 ❖ Found in Northern Cape ❖ Criteria: (v)(vi) ❖ Criterion (v): The large expanse of sand contains evidence of human occupation from the Stone Age to the present and is associated with the culture of the formerly nomadic =Khomani San people and the strategies that allowed them to adapt to harsh desert conditions. ❖ Criterion (vii): Bears testimony to the way of life that prevailed in the region and shaped the site over thousands of years.
  • Barberton Makhonjwa Mountains – Natural Site ❖ Declared in 2018 ❖ Found in Mpumalanga Province ❖ Criteria: (viii) ❖ Criterion (viii): Represents the best preserved succession of volcanic and sedimentary rock dating back 3.6 to 3.25 billion years, when the first continents were starting to form on the primitive Earth.

THE VALUE OF THE WORLD HERITAGE SITES TO SOUTH AFRICA’S TOURISM INDUSTRY ❖ Gain prestige- making a country proud of the achievement. More people deciding to visit the country. ❖ People show added care for the heritage and learn to conserve for future generations ❖ Increased revenue for a country. ❖ Increased job opportunities. ❖ Infrastructural improvement ❖ Uplifts the overall standard of an area.

Marketing South Africa as a tourism destination

Role of SA Tourism in marketing South Africa internationally as a destination of choice for tourists ❖ Marketing activities showcase our country as a choice destination at various global travel trade shows. ❖ Vigorous advertising ❖ Their international offices help to extend marketing.

Tourism event that takes place at the ITB Berlin ❖ Travel trade show/ Travel trade exhibition

Role that SAT plays at the ITB Berlin ❖ SATourism is responsible for marketing South Africa. ❖ Show-casing the various tourism products and services available in South Africa.

Ways which South Africa is advantaged by SATourism’s activities at the ITB Berlin. ❖ It creates opportunities for South African tourism businesses and provincial tourism authorities to market at an international tradeshow. ❖ Awareness of South Africa as a value-for-money long-haul destination for the Germany and European markets and other delegates at the ITB.

❖ TOMSA – Tourism Levy South Africa

Sectors contributing to the TOMSA levy ❖ accommodation sector, car rental companies, tour operators

Relationship between TOMSA AND SA Tourism ❖ SAT can use the funds raised by TOMSA to promote the South Africa locally and internationally.

Way in which TOMSA collects money from tourism businesses in South Africa to fund SATourism’s marketing activities. ❖ Tourism businesses add a voluntary 1% tourism levy to tourists’ bills which is then paid over to TOMSA through TBCSA who are the administrators of TOMSA.

Involvement of the Tourism Business Council of South Africa (TBCSA) in TOMSA’s operations ❖ Levies are paid by the tourists which are paid to TBCSA who are the administrators of TOMSA.

The elements found on South Africa’s brand logo ❖ The South African flag is used and is an internationally recognised representation associated with SA. ❖ The country’s name is written out in full, leaving no room for confusion. ❖ Slogan: Inspiring new ways. ❖ The colours of the South African flag.

The importance of marketing South Africa as a destination of choice ❖ Ensures that South Africa competes in and taps into a highly competitive market place. ❖ It showcases the attractiveness of South Africa. ❖ It results in an increase in inbound tourism.

❖ Professional image – is the image you project through your appearance, attitude, behaviour and morals. ❖ Contract of employment – is an agreement between the employer and the employee which describes the rights and responsibilities required for the job. ❖ A code of conduct – is a set of rules that guide behaviour in a work place. ❖ The document that stipulate the laws under which an employee is employed – Basic Conditions of Employment Act (No. 75 of 1997)

The importance of signing the contract of employment before starting a new job ❖ Contact of employment protects the employer and the employee. ❖ It defines the conditions under which the employee is employed.

What is included in a contact of employment? ❖ Working hours ❖ Core duties ❖ Remuneration (salary) ❖ Travel benefits ❖ Leave ❖ Fringe benefits (are other benefits that an employee can enjoy while being employed at that company. E.g. cell phone costs, petrol allowance, vehicle purchase discounts, discounted travel and medical insurances) Employees get 3 days of Family Responsibility leave.

The value of a code of conduct ❖ A code of conduct guides the conduct of staff in a business. ❖ It promotes integrity in the workplace ❖ It guides staff on ethical matters in the workplace. ❖ Encourages employees to act responsibly.

What is included in a code of conduct? ❖ The behaviour of employees when at work ❖ Confidentiality ❖ Use of company assets ❖ Honesty ❖ Appropriate dress ❖ Integrity of staff ❖ Obeying of laws and regulations ❖ Substance abuse

The importance of personal appearance of all employees. ❖ It is a reflection on the environment in which they work. ❖ It can create a sense of trust in the business or vice versa

How a business can portray the professional image ❖ The company name, logo and slogan ❖ The company stationery ❖ The physical appearance of the business ❖ Promotions and communication with customers and the website or social media sites. ❖ Marketing material and product packaging ❖ Credentials and awards ❖ Employee appearance and conduct ❖ Environmental policies ❖ Customer service policies

How the employees can maintain the professional image/ how the staff can contribute to the professional image of the company? ❖ Adhere to company policy, adhere to dress code, smile – it brings in the money, Personal appearance – be well groomed/ neat, Punctuality- manage time effectively, Behaviour and attitude- note posture/ approach. Have extensive knowledge. Acquiring excellent communication skills.

Consequences of a negative conduct ❖ Customers will support the opposition. ❖ Negative word of mouth may result in fewer customers. ❖ Decreasing profit margins ❖ Loss of employees

Intervention strategies to management that can improve the negative conducts of employees ❖ The employees can undergo additional training sessions. ❖ The employees can work under supervision until the conduct is acceptable. ❖ The employee can get a written warning. ❖ Disciplinary procedures can be started.

THE THREE PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM Sustainable – something which can be kept in the same condition or a better condition for the future.

Social – People                               Environmental – Planet                          Profit/ financial – Profit

Environment (planet) – how socially responsible the company is with regard to the natural environment. Economy (profit) – how responsibly the company acts in terms of ownership, procurement, employment. Social (people) – what effect the company has on its employees and the communities in which it operates.

  • Environment (Planet) ❖ Resource management – businesses should make sure that they conserve energy and water. This can be done by: switching off lights and appliances when not in use, use solar heating for hot water, collect rainwater in a tank to water the garden and grounds, not wasting water by allowing taps and pipes to leak, using water-saving showers and toilets, use washing ❖ Waste management – If a business wants to control the amount of waste it generates, it should make sure that it obeys the three principles of reduce, recycle and re-use ❖ Litter and pollution control – businesses should make sure that they limit the amount of pollution it causes. This can be done by: Encourage all staff to pick up litter when they see it. Taking care not to pollute streams and rivers with chemicals and rubbish. Avoiding extremely bright lights, as light pollution can also cause problems, particularly in game reserves. ❖ Environmentally friendly buildings- This can be done by: Using building material that are not harmful to the environment. Making sure that the buildings are well insulated so that they keep cool in summer and warm in winter, thus minimising the need for heating and air-conditioning. ❖ Promotion of indigenous flora and control of alien plants Plant indigenous plants in the grounds, which need less water to grow.
  • Economy (Profit) ❖ Ownership – offer shares to employees ❖ Employment – ➢job vacancy for local people ➢Fair wages and working conditions ➢Provide skills training programmes for staff. ➢Practices must be transparent ➢Provide staff with incentives and bonuses linked to performance or service levels. ➢Procurement of local goods and services – buy local goods and services
  • Social (People) ❖ Stakeholders to be part of decision making ❖ Provide training & empowerment of staff ❖ Corporate Social Investment (CSI) – is a way in which a tourism business can give back to the local community in which it operates. ❖ Forms of CSI: ➢ adopting a local school ➢Provide bursaries to local school learners ❖ Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) – is where a business engages in a project from time to time, more as a marketing initiative.(e.g. the business will help set up a mobile clinic or library for a community not necessarily where they operate from)

Responsible tourism and tourists Responsible tourism – form of practising tourism so that it is sustainable. Responsible tourism – is an approach to the management of tourism, aimed at maximising economic, social and environmental benefits and minimising costs to destinations.

Codes of conduct for tourist behaviour ❖ A code of conduct is a set of rules, which are written down, on how people are expected to behave.

How can a tourist destination attract environmentally conscious tourist. ❖ The business must have a responsible travel and/or environmental policy. ❖ The business must stimulate the local economy by buying local products and services. ❖ Have a recycling programme in place. ❖ Practise the triple bottom – line approach ❖ Responsible marketing of businesses ❖ Encourage visitors to use water sparingly ❖ Do not buy or sell products made from endangered species, e.g. hard woods, shells from beach traders ❖ Going green ❖ Developing partnerships ❖ Joining FTT ❖ Promoting emerging and local businesses

Types of responsible tourist behaviour that visitors should exhibit when visiting an attraction. ❖ Use water and energy sparingly. ❖ Recycle, reduce and re-use. ❖ Avoid an form of pollution ❖ Do not vandalise. ❖ Leave only footprints.

Benefits that responsible tourism behaviour has for a community ❖ It ensures that visitors and local communities alike share the benefits of tourism and travel equally. ❖ It creates a sense of pride. ❖ It promotes greater understanding of and appreciation for fair and equitable business practice.

Fair Trade Tourism

FTT (Fair Trade Tourism) - is a non-profit organisation that promote sustainable tourism development in Southern Africa and beyond. The aim of FTT is to make tourism more sustainable by ensuring that the people who contribute their land, resources, labour and knowledge to tourism are the ones who reap the benefits. This is done by growing awareness about responsible tourism to travellers; assisting tourism businesses to operate more sustainably; and by facilitating a Fair Trade Tourism certification programme across Southern Africa. Tourism businesses that adhere to the FTT standard use the FTT label as a way of signifying their commitment to fair and responsible tourism.

FTT six principles

  • Fair share- all participants involved in a tourism activity should get their fair share of the income, in direct proportion to their contribution to the activity.
  • Democracy (fair say) – all participants involved in a tourism activity should have the right and opportunity to participate in decisions that concern them.
  • Respect – both host and visitor should have respect for human rights, culture and environment (safe working conditions and practices, protection of young workers, promoting gender equality, HIV/AIDS awareness).
  • Reliability – the services delivered to tourists establish mechanism of accountability (ownership must be clearly defined, sharing of profits, benefits and losses must be transparent, employees and other participants should be able to access information that concern them).
  • Sustainability – the tourism businesses should strive to be sustainable.

Fair Trade good practices: ❖ Fair Wages and working conditions ❖ Products must be obtained from local producers ❖ Have respect for human and environmental rights ❖ Reliability and Transparency ❖ Practicing sustainability

GLOBAL EVENTS ➢ A global event is something that all countries know of and affect or change the whole world.

HOW DO WE DETERMINE WHETHER AN EVENT HAS THE STATUS OF BEING CLASSIFIED AS A GLOBAL EVENT? ➢ It involves multi-country participation. ➢ It draws large crowds from all over the world. ➢ It generates multi-country interest. ➢ Has major global media attention. ➢ The event requires proper planning and preparation. ➢ Large sums of money is invested in the event.

Sporting events: 2010 FIFA World Cup (football), Wimbledon (tennis), Comrades Marathon (running), Tour de France (cycling), Olympic Games (all sporting codes). Non- Sporting Events: G8 Summit, Summits on climate change, Miss Universe and Miss World), World Conferences.

POSITIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBAL EVENTS ON INTERNATIONAL TOURISM ➢ ECONOMIC- Increased foreign revenue, increased business transactions and therefore increased profits, Creation of employment opportunities, Skills developments, Publicity via media experiences at the destination, Creations of other investment opportunities. ➢ SOCIAL – Communities are uplifted through skills development and job creation, communities are able to showcase their cultures. ➢ ENVIRONMENTAL – More money is invested in protecting the environment, more funding becomes available as profits made from the event, physical and natural environment are upgraded to enhance its tourism attractiveness.

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF GLOBAL EVENTS ON INTERNATIONAL TOURISM ➢ ECONOMIC – Large sums of money are invested in preparation for the event, increased employment is only temporary, many people over-invest and once the event is over the investment is not sustainable, Negative publicity if something goes wrong. ➢ SOCIAL - Cultural disrespect can result in conflict situations, increase in criminal activity, a superficial image is created about the destination for the duration of the event. ➢ ENVIRONMENTAL – Mass tourism can result in increased stress on the natural environment, air pollution from increased demand for transport, litter created by the event creates more pressure on the environment, and the natural environment can be cleared away for infrastructure development.

THE IMPACT OF HOSTING A GLOBAL EVENT ON DOMESTIC TOURISM IN THE HOST COUNTRY. POSITIVE – Domestic tourists see it as an opportunity to participate in such unique event, Pride in their country and the need to support the event. NEGATIVE – Major construction in infrastructure may make it inconvenient for people to travel, Prices are usually higher due to increased demand, Places may be fully booked, and congestion and overcrowding may discourage domestic tourists.


POSITIVE ➢ Creation of employment opportunities ➢ Attracts investment ➢ Wide scale of infrastructural development ➢ Increased foreign revenue ➢ Increased marketing for the host country ➢ All tourism sectors tend to benefit from the influx of tourists ➢ Skills development and entrepreneurial opportunities for locals ➢ It will set the multiplier effect into motion ➢ Will result in positive GDP growth ➢ Increased publicity/ positive image ➢ International publicity and exposure

NEGATIVE ➢ Increased levels of crime ➢ Increased pollution/ traffic congestion ➢ Negative media coverage if the event proves to be unsuccessful ➢ Exploitation of cultures and surrounding environments ➢ Disruption of daily commuting patterns of the local people ➢ Overcrowding with international and domestic visitors flocking to the city.

Political situation ❖ Political situation – is any event that involves the countries government and the way in which the country is run. ❖ Types of political situations ➢ Acts of terrorism ➢ Protests ➢ Xenophobia ❖ The impact this situation have on international tourism and the economy of the affected country ➢ Tourists may chose not to visit the country which will decrease foreign revenue. ➢ Investors will pull out ➢ Jobs will be lost due to fewer tourists visiting the country. ➢ The negative WOM/media coverage may discourage potential tourists from visiting the country.

Unforeseen circumstances ❖ An unforeseen circumstance - is an event that cannot be predicted in advance. ❖ Types of unforeseen occurrences ➢ Natural disasters ➢ Economic upsets ➢ Accidents ➢ Diseases ❖ The impact this unforeseen occurrence have on international tourism and the economy of the affected country ➢ Tourists may chose not to visit the country which will decrease foreign revenue. ➢ The country may lose potential investors. ➢ Jobs will be lost due to fewer tourists visiting the country. ➢ Loss of profits may lead to retrenchments.

Why it is important for SATourism to have statistics ❖ To provide for the needs and wants of customers. ❖ To monitor travel trends. ❖ To gather information in order to market South Africa as a preferred destination.

Reasons why the European markets visit more in South Africa (more number of tourists from these countries) ❖ Favourable exchange rate for them (South Africa is a VFM destination) ❖ Travelling time is convenient ❖ Business opportunities ❖ South Africa is considered a safe destination compared to other major destinations. ❖ Our climate attracts tourists

Reasons why other countries don’t like to visit South Africa (least number of tourists from these countries) ❖ We are not a VFM destination for them. ❖ Travelling time is too long ❖ Attractions we have may be similar to what they provide. ❖ Our climate may not be appeal to them

Ways that SATourism can use to encourage inbound tourism from a least visiting country ❖ Intensive marketing programmes ❖ Offering incentives to tourists ❖ Research their specific needs and develop packages around those research. ❖ Examine possibility of offering direct flights ❖ Dropping visa regulations for tourists


❖ Customer feedback: is the process of collecting information from customers regarding the satisfaction or dissatisfaction they feel with a product or service.

The purpose of customer feedback ❖ To gain information on what they are doing right, what they are doing wrong, how they can improve and how they can attract more customers.

Types of customer feedback: ❖ Surveys, Questionnaires, Feedback cards, Follow-up calls, sms services, web-based responses, mystery customer.

Analysing customer feedback

  • Study and capture the feedback data to determine the extent of customer satisfaction.
  • Identify the most common complaints
  • Decide on an action plan
  • Start the intervention process

Ways how feedback methods help to improve the level of service delivery of tourism businesses ❖ Feedback gathered from clients is used to evaluate service delivery. ❖ To ensure satisfaction levels of customers are established. ❖ The message that the tourism business cares about its customers are established, ❖ The information captured can be used to improve service delivery levels at the business. ❖ Quick feedback and problems are addressed immediately.

Intervention plans that should be implemented to improve service delivery  OR  Suggest strategies that can be used to improve service ❖ Staff sent for regular training courses to improve service delivery skills. ❖ Training methods adopted to improve the speed of service. ❖ Offer incentives to employees to maintain good work ethics. ❖ Continuous feedback from customers.

Negative impacts that poor review could have on a business ❖ Loss of customers ❖ Loss of business profitability ❖ Loss of income ❖ Negative publicity due to negative word of mouth ❖ Loss of repeat visit

Impacts of excellent service on business profitability ❖ More money for the business. ❖ The business gets a better reputation. ❖ Increased customer satisfaction. ❖ Customer loyalty ❖ Repeat business ❖ Positive word-of-mouth

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Statewide Eclipse Preparation

Multiple state, county, and city agencies have been preparing for months for the 2024 eclipse event on April 8, 2024. Parts of southeastern Oklahoma will experience a total solar eclipse. State and local authorities are working together to prepare for the event and to keep both visitors and residents safe. 

Viewing the Eclipse Safely

Transportation information.

Oklahoma Department of Transportation provides live traffic information in Southeast Oklahoma on the  Eclipse Road Map . Cameras will be live closer to the event. 

More About the Eclipse in Oklahoma

The total solar eclipse visits Oklahoma on April 8, 2024 beginning at 1:44 pm CDT with the final exit of the Moon’s shadow from the state at 1:51 pm CDT. Through Oklahoma, the speed of the Moon’s shadow will accelerate from about 1680 miles per hour to about 1745 miles per hour. 

Plan Your Trip to Southeast Oklahoma

Oklahoma State Parks are prime Eclipse viewing locations and the Oklahoma Department of Travel and Tourism is here to help you plan your trip. Across 12 distinct eco-regions with cozy lodging and outdoor adventures galore, find the park that's perfect for your eclipse viewing!

Neighboring State Eclipse Information

Oklahoma isn't the only place to view the Eclipse Path of Totality, which crosses the country diagonally from Texas to Maine. In our neighboring states, the Path of Totality will cross numerous cities including Austin, Dallas, Fort Worth, and Waco in  Texas and Texarkana, Hot Springs, Little Rock, and Jonesboro in Arkansas .

Statewide Eclipse Preparedness

Multiple state, county, and city agencies have been preparing for months for the 2024 eclipse event on April 8, 2024. Parts of southeastern Oklahoma will experience a total solar eclipse.

Oklahoma is expected to receive an influx of anywhere from 17,000 to 66,000 visitors to watch the solar eclipse, according to a study conducted by the Visitors will likely watch the eclipse within the path of totality in which the moon will completely block out the sun. This stretches across southeastern Oklahoma. The path of totality will completely cover McCurtain County, and partially cover Choctaw, Bryan, Atoka, Pushmataha, Latimer, and Leflore Counties. The town with the longest total eclipse viewing time will be Shults, Oklahoma, approximately 3 miles east of Idabel, with 4 minutes and 19 seconds of viewing time, according to The eclipse will pass over Oklahoma starting at 1:44 p.m. CDT and end by 1:51 p.m. CDT on April 8, 2024.

The large influx of visitors to southeastern Oklahoma could overwhelm and backup the area's road systems. The major highways in the area are US-70, US-259, and State Highway 3. These roads are mostly two-lane highways passing through small towns. 

What to Expect

  • Increased tourists and visitors
  • Increased traffic
  • Maximum capacity in hotels, cabins, campgrounds
  • Decreased quality of cellular service
  • Delays in supply chains and deliveries
  • Increased emergency response times
  • Schedule errands and appointments two to three days before the eclipse.
  • Fill up gas tanks.
  • Buy and stock up on groceries.
  • Have several forms of communication, not only cellular.
  • Be sure to check the weather.
  • If traveling to the area, arrive early; stay put; and leave late.

Safety Tips

  • Don't stop along roadways or the shoulders of roadways.
  • Exit the roadway to view or photograph the event.
  • Don't take photographs while driving.
  • Turn your headlights on.
  • Watch out for pedestrians.
  • Don't pick up hitchhikers.
  • Prepare for congestion on the day before, day of, and day after the eclipse. 

Solar Eclipse Social Media

State and local authorities are working together to prepare for the event and to keep both visitors and residents safe. The Oklahoma Highway Patrol will have extra troopers in the southeastern part of the state before, during, and after the eclipse.

Partner agencies.

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Oklahoma Department of Emergency 


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Oklahoma City, OK  73105

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What time does daylight saving time start? What is it? When to 'spring forward' this weekend

tourism time zones

This Sunday, the majority of Americans will "spring forward" and set their clocks ahead an hour, losing an hour of sleep as the annual tradition of daylight saving time begins for the year.

Daylight saving time will end for 2024 in November, when we set our clocks back and gain an extra hour of sleep.

The time adjustment affects the daily lives of hundreds of millions of Americans, prompting clock changes, contributing to  less sleep  in the days following and, of course, later sunsets.

Those disruptions may have contributed to  public sentiment souring  on the time change in recent years, but legislative moves to do away with daylight saving time have stalled in Congress.

Even ahead of the time change on Sunday, there are already cities in every continental U.S. time zone that are  reporting sunset times  after 6 p.m. as the Earth and the Northern Hemisphere begins its tilt toward the sun and summer approaches.

Here's everything you need to know about the start of daylight saving time.

Daylight saving time and kids' sleep: How to help your kids adjust their sleep schedules

What is daylight saving time?

Daylight saving time is the time between March and November when most Americans adjust their clocks by one hour.

We lose an hour in March (as opposed to gaining an hour in the fall) to accommodate for more daylight in the summer evenings. When we "fall back" in November, it's to add more daylight in the mornings. In the Northern Hemisphere, the vernal equinox is March 19 , marking the start of the spring season. 

When does daylight saving time begin in 2024?

Daylight saving time will begin for 2024 on Sunday, March 10 at 2 a.m. local time, when our clocks will move forward an hour, part of the twice-annual time change that affects most, but not all , Americans.

A dog weighs in on daylight saving time: 'I eat one hour later? That's a hard no from me.'

When does daylight saving time end in 2024?

Daylight saving time will end for the year at 2 a.m. local time on Sunday, Nov. 3, when we "fall back" and gain an extra hour of sleep.

Next year, it will begin again on Sunday, March 9, 2025.

Daylight saving time 2024: Deals on food, coffee and more to help you cope with lost hour

Is daylight saving time ending permanently?

The push to stop changing clocks was put before Congress in the last couple of years, when the U.S. Senate unanimously approved the  Sunshine Protection Act  in 2022, a bill that would make daylight saving time permanent.

Although the Sunshine Protection Act was passed unanimously by the Senate in 2022, it did not pass in the  U.S. House of Representatives  and was not signed into law by President Joe Biden.

A  2023 version of the act  remained idle in Congress as well.

Does every state observe daylight saving time?

Not all states and U.S. territories  participate  in daylight saving time.

Hawaii and Arizona (with the exception of the Navajo Nation) do not observe daylight saving time. Because of its desert climate,  Arizona  doesn't follow daylight saving time. After most of the U.S. adopted the Uniform Time Act, the state figured that there wasn't a good reason to adjust clocks to make sunset occur an hour later during the hottest months of the year.

There are also five other U.S. territories that do not participate, either:

  • American Samoa
  • Northern Mariana Islands
  • Puerto Rico 
  •  U.S. Virgin Islands 

The Navajo Nation, which spans Arizona, Utah and New Mexico, does follow daylight saving time.

Hawaii is the other state that does not observe daylight saving time. Because of its proximity to the equator, there is not a lot of variance between hours of daylight during the year.

Follow a mile-by-mile map of the total solar eclipse

On April 8, the sun, moon and Earth will enter the precise alignment of a total solar eclipse. The moon will block the sun, casting a shadow across a strip of North America from the Pacific Ocean west of Mexico, through 15 U.S. states, to the Atlantic off Canada.

This strip, roughly 4,000 miles long and 115 miles wide, is called the path of totality. For a short while, everyone and everything in this path will experience midday darkness.

The beginning

Eclipse icon

2:07-2:11 p.m.

Total time eclipsed

Cloud icon

Historic cloud coverage

The moon’s shadow makes landfall in Mexico at 2:07 p.m. Eastern time, casting the first region into darkness. Here, darkness lasts for about four minutes near the center of the path, but decreases in time toward the edges.

A populous path

Nearly 32 million people live in the path of totality this year. The eclipse crosses the homes of more people in Texas alone than the 2017 eclipse crossed nationally.

Eagle Pass, Tex.

2:27-2:31 p.m.

The eclipse crosses into the United States in Eagle Pass, Tex. The border town will be dark for 4 minutes and 23 seconds — over a minute longer than the 2017 eclipse lasted anywhere.

2:35-2:39 p.m.

A 195-mile stretch of Interstate 35 between Austin and Dallas is in the path. Texas officials are already warning drivers not to stop on roadways during the eclipse. You'd have to drive 1,950 miles an hour to keep up with the moon's shadow.

2:40-2:44 p.m.

The nation’s second busiest airport, Dallas Fort Worth International, lies in the path of totality. The airport said flights will not be affected. Some airlines are even offering special flights timed to the eclipse to extend your time in totality.

Hot Springs National Park

2:48-2:53 p.m.

In Arkansas lies Hot Springs National Park, one of two national parks in the path of totality. Parks across the country, even those not in totality, are planning livestreams, shows and talks for the eclipse.

Ozark National Scenic Riverways

2:55-2:59 p.m.

Just like many humans, Smokey Bear is also traveling into the path of totality. A 97-foot-tall hot air balloon bearing Smokey’s face is traveling from New Mexico to the Ozarks to remind visitors how to prevent wildfires.

Carbondale, Ill.

2:59-3:03 p.m.

Just past the Mississippi River is Carbondale, Ill., which has billed itself the “Eclipse Crossroads of America” because it sat in the path of the 2017 eclipse.

Check the forecast

At this point in the path, the weather forecast becomes critical for eclipse seekers. The areas from here on are typically cloudier in April than the previous areas, according to an analysis of cloud cover data.

3:13-3:17 p.m.

The eclipse crosses the Cleveland Guardians’s baseball stadium on the team's home opener at about 3:15 p.m. But rather than be interrupted by nearly four minutes of darkness, the game will start two hours after the moon’s shadow passes by.

An influential eclipse

The eclipse next passes over land historically populated by the Haudenosaunee, also known as the Iroquois. Researchers disagree on when the Iroquois Confederacy was established. But tribal oral history indicates the Seneca joined the alliance shortly after witnessing a solar eclipse, which researchers suggest occurred in this area in 1142.

Burlington, Vt.

3:25-3:28 p.m.

About 13,000 schools are in the path of totality, including more than 300 in Vermont. Some plan to incorporate experiencing the eclipse into their lessons, but others plan to let kids out of school early to help avoid traffic bottlenecks.

Piscataquis County, Maine

3:30-3:34 p.m.

The final 150 miles of the Appalachian Trail lie in the path of totality, including Mount Katahdin, the highest point in Maine.

Gulf of St. Lawrence

3:32-3:35 p.m.

The eclipse finally passes over Prince Edward Island before its last hurrah over Newfoundland in Canada, completing its North American journey in a bit more than two hours.

Totality at 2:07 p.m. EDT

About this story

Population calculated by summing 2020 population estimates in 30 arc-second grid cells within the path of totality. Distance covered calculated from the centerline of the path.

Sources: NASA, European Space Agency, U.S. Geological Survey, Natural Earth Data, Census Bureau, OpenStreetMap, GOES imagery analysis by University of Wisconsin at Madison Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, Center for International Earth Science Information Network

Szu Yu Chen and Lauren Tierney contributed to this report. Editing by Emily M. Eng, Tim Meko and Victoria Jaggard. Copy editing by Angela Mecca.

tourism time zones

How to Change Time on Fitbit Devices in 5 Steps

W hile there’s a strong likelihood your Fitbit devices will be able to automatically set the time, this isn’t always the case. This might be due to some type of travel, change in time zones, or some other reason. This might even be an issue that somehow impacts you after daylight savings depending on where you live. In the event your Fitbit isn’t making the right time adjustment, the good news is you can quickly update the time all on your own. 

What’s most important to know is that these steps should apply to most of the Fitbits on the market today. Whether you are on Android or iOS, you should be able to change the time in the same way using the Fitbit app or on your device itself. Let’s jump right into how to make the right corrections and have you arrive on time wherever you need to be. 

Why Do You Need to Change the Time on Fitbit? 

As I hinted at earlier, there are two likely suspects for needing to change the time on your Fitbit. The first is that the time zone didn’t properly change if you recently traveled. This could be as simple as going from Eastern time in the U.S. to Central time. 

Alternatively, it could be going from Eastern time in the U.S. to London, England. This five-hour difference has multiple time zone changes, so you may need to update if your Fitbit doesn’t automatically read the new time from your smartphone. 

Another frequent culprit that impacts your Fitbit is daylight savings or standard time depending on where you are located. When daylight savings changes, sometimes your Fitbit might not register the update. In this case, you can follow the steps below and quickly get your Fitbit clock back on track. 

How to Change the Time On Your Fitbit – iPhone

The first thing you need to do with your iPhone is make sure you have the Fitbit app downloaded and installed on your iPhone. 

Start by opening up the Fitbit iPhone app and tapping on the Today tab . This tab should have what looks like a little sun logo. Locate this icon and then tap on your profile picture and go to Fitbit settings > App Settings . 

With this next step, make sure that you have the “ Set Automatically ” option toggled off so your time does not automatically update in the future. You should now tap on the Time Zone option and make sure you have the right time zone location selected. This could be a helpful tip if you are traveling internationally and go through multiple time zone changes. 

The next step is to resync your Fitbit device and see if the correct time is now showing on your device. To perform this action, you want to use the back button in the top left corner of the Account settings menu or click on the Today tab in the bottom left corner and click on your profile photo again. 

As soon as you are back in the Account section of the Fitbit app on the iPhone, you should see your Fitbit devicess in the main menu. Select your device and then scroll down until you see an option for Sync Now . As soon as you tap on this option, your Fitbit will resync and the time zone should be properly updated. 

It’s important to note the first step with the iPhone changes slightly depending on whether you use your Google or Fitbit account login. With the Fitbit login, you will tap on the Today tab > settings icon > App Settings and then turn on the Set Automatically option. 

With your Google Account login, you will use the steps numbered above. It’s only the first step that is different between the two types of account logins with the Fitbit app. 

How to Change the Time On Your Fitbit – Android

Changing the time on your Fitbit on Android is just as easy as it is on the iPhone. These steps shouldn’t take you more than a minute or two and you should be back in business on all of your Fitbit devices. 

Start again by launching the Fitbit app on your Android device and tapping on the Today tab . As is the case with the iPhone app, the Today tab should look like a little sun with a couple of tick marks underneath. 

Once you are in the Today tab, click on your profile picture and then click on Fitbit settings > App Settings . 

Similar to the iPhone, you will now make sure you have the Automatic time zone option toggled off. All you have to do now is locate and tap on the time zone that matches your current location. 

As soon as the above step is completed, you now need to go back and sync your Fitbit devices. This will allow the updated time zone to take effect and the proper time to begin showing. To perform this action, you want to use the back button in the top left corner of the Account settings menu or click on the Today tab in the bottom left corner and click on your profile photo again. 

Just as you did with the iPhone app, go back to the Account section on the Android Fitbit app. It’s here that you should see your Fitbit device in the main menu. Select your device and then scroll down until you see an option for Sync Now . As soon as you tap on this option, your Fitbit will resync and the time zone should be properly updated. 

With Android, you have a mostly similar process if you log in with your Fitbit username and password instead of your Google Account. The steps above are for using your Google Account login to update the time on your Fitbit. If you prefer using your Fitbit login, you’ll need to tap on the Today tab > settings icon > App Settings. You can then toggle the Automatic time zone option off again and follow the rest of the numbered steps above. 

How to Change the Time On Your Fitbit Using a Web Browser

While changing the time on a Fitbit is easiest with the app, you can also do so using the Fitbit website on a web browser. 

You’ll start by navigating to in any web browser of your choosing. Once you land on this page, you’ll want to go ahead and log into your Fitbit account. 

As soon as you are logged in, go ahead and look for the gear icon in the top-right corner of the page and click on Settings in the menu that drops down. 

Assuming you are now on the Personal Info page, you can skip ahead to the next step. If you are not on a Personal Info page, click on this option on the left-hand side of the screen. 

You will now scroll down to the Advanced Settings section and locate the menu option for the correct time zone. Now choose the right time zone for wherever you are in the world. 

With the right time zone selected, click on Submit to make sure the changes you have made are saved. All that’s left now is just logging out of your Fitbit devices account. 

How to Change the Time On Your Fitbit – 12 or 24-Hour Clock

Changing the time zone on the Fitbit is easy, but what if you are somewhere you want to use a 24-hour clock instead of a 12-hour clock? Fitbit makes this change super easy. 

Start by opening up the Fitbit app and tapping on the Today tab > profile picture > Fitbit settings > App Settings. It’s important to know this menu order works best if you are logged into your Fitbit app using your Google Account. 

If you are using your Fitbit login, you’ll want to tap on the Today tab > settings icon > App Settings. 

Now tap on Clock Display Time and update from 12 to 24 hours or back again. This step works the same with both your Google Account and Fitbit login. 

Last but not least is to sync your Fitbit devices, which follows the same steps outlined in changing the time zone above.

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Fitbit Luxe

What Is a Time Zone?

By Anne Buckle

The term time zone can be used to describe several different things, but mostly it refers to the local time of a region or a country.

World map with time zones indicated in different colors

Our Time Zone Map is always current.

At we define a time zone as a region where the same standard time is used.

Time Difference from UTC

The local time within a time zone is defined by its offset (difference) from Coordinated Universal Time (UTC), the world's time standard.

UTC time changes 1 hour forward and backward corresponding to a 1-hour difference in mean solar time for every 15 degrees east or west of the prime meridian (0° longitude ) in Greenwich, London , United Kingdom. The offset is expressed as either UTC- or UTC+ and the number of hours and minutes.

Interactive Time Zone Map

More Than 24 Time Zones

If each time zone were 1 hour apart, there would be 24 in the world. However, the actual borders on the time zone map have been drawn to match up with both internal and international borders, and rarely match up exactly with the 15-degree longitudes. Also, the International Date Line (IDL), creates 3 time zones and several time zones are only 30 and 45 minutes apart. This makes the total number of time zones worldwide much higher.

Daylight Saving Time Zones

Regions that use Daylight Saving Time (DST) change the time zone name and time during the DST period. The words “daylight” or “summer” are then usually included in the time zone name. The areas that don't use DST remain on standard time zone all year.

For example, California uses Pacific Daylight Time (PDT) during the DST period, but Pacific Standard Time (PST) during the rest of the year.

Not the Same as Local Time

The term time zone is often used instead of local time . For instance, during DST, it is common to say “California and Arizona are now in the same time zone.” However, the correct thing to say would be: “California and Arizona now have the same local time.”

The reason is that California's local time during DST is UTC-7, but the standard time in California is minus one more hour: UTC-8. However, Arizona's local time is always UTC-7, because there's no DST in Arizona , and they remain on standard time all year.

Why do we have time zones?

DST worldwide

Time on cruise ships

Green roadsign reading "Entering Central Time Zone"

The formal name for Central Time in the US is either Central Standard Time or Central Daylight Time.


Local Time Zone Names

To confuse matters more, each time zone can have different local time zone names , usually linked to the geographical name of the country or region. The time zone names may be completely different, even though the UTC offset is the same.

For instance in Miami, Florida , is 5 hours behind UTC (UTC-5) and the standard time zone is Eastern Standard Time (EST). In Havana, Cuba , the standard time zone is also UTC-5, but it's called Cuba Standard Time (CST).

Military Time Zones

The reason there are 25 military time zones instead of 24 is that Mike Time Zone (M) and Yankee Time Zone (Y) are the same time, but on either side of the International Date Line . J (Juliet Time Zone) is occasionally used to refer to the observer's local time.

Learn how to use military time

Identical Abbreviations

Another point that can cause confusion is that some time zone's names in totally different places have exactly the same abbreviation. For example, India Standard Time (IST) and Israel Standard Time (IST) have the same abbreviation, but completely different UTC offsets of UTC+5:30 and UTC+2:00.

In many parts of the world, especially in countries with only one time zone, time zone names are not commonly used at all.

Hot Political Potato

In most countries, the political decision to make adjustments regarding time zones or DST is made for practical reasons, like saving energy, facilitating trade with neighboring areas , or boost tourism .

In some cases, time zone borders and DST can be a political tool, most recently in Russia , Ukraine , and North Korea .

Topics: Time Zone , Timekeeping

Putin showcases his Ukraine ambitions at Red Square celebration after election win

MOSCOW — Vladimir Putin took to the Red Square stage Monday for an election celebration that seemed to carry a grander message for the flag-waving crowd of thousands, and for the world: Having extended his rule over Russia , his focus would be tightening his grip on Ukrainian territory.

“Together, hand in hand — we will move on,” he proclaimed before singing along to the national anthem, just hours after claiming a landslide win in a stage-managed election with no opposition.

Flanked by his favorite musical acts, pro-war celebrities and the three officially approved figures put on the ballot with him, he led this celebratory event to mark the 10th anniversary of his annexation of the Crimean Peninsula . Ukrainian officials told NBC News that the party was nothing but propaganda, and decried as illegal coercion the votes held for the first time in four newly annexed regions .

After three days of voting, Russia’s electoral commission said Putin had received 87% of the ballots, the biggest win of his political career, in what the Kremlin painted as an unequivocal public stamp of approval for his invasion of Ukraine , even though critics of the war were barred from running.

Just hours later, the Russian leader was in Red Square, where his face was beamed onto huge screens so that it could be seen from Lenin’s mausoleum and beyond.

From a stage beneath the colorful domes of St. Basil’s Cathedral, the music was at times as loud as thunder and the red-brick walls of the Kremlin flickered with the lights of the stage. The crowd — mostly students, some of whom said they had been given free tickets to the event — cheered and sang along as Russian stars performed patriotic ballads.

Mostly under 20 years old, many had their faces painted in the colors of the Russian flag. Putin, in power for the last 24 years, is the only leader they have ever known. They may be well into adulthood before seeing another.

“He has made Russia a lot better than it was,” Maksim Druzhinin, 18, said, speaking in English. Asked whether he expected to turn 30 before Putin might leave office, the teen, who is a student at the capital’s prestigious Higher School of Economics, said: “There is a question: Who else?”

Putin Speech Moscow

“He has been keeping the country together for many years,” said Alexandra Volkova, a programming student, speaking in Russian. “He is definitely the most reliable candidate out there,” the 18-year-old said.

Of course, the Kremlin’s crackdown on dissent means gauging public opinion in Russia is difficult. And this was an especially pro-Putin crowd, not filled with those who turned out at noon Sunday in a silent show of defiance called for by the opposition, or quietly resigned to life under Putin.

‘Crimea is not Russian’

Putin used the occasion to promise to extend the Russian railroad system all the way to occupied Crimea, as an alternative to the bridge connecting the peninsula to the Russian mainland that has come under frequent Ukrainian attacks .

The Russian leader also commended the people of Crimea for what he said was their dedication to Moscow.

President Vladimir Putin seized Crimea from Ukraine a decade ago, a move that sent his popularity soaring but was widely denounced as illegal.

“They are our pride,” Putin said. “They never separated themselves from Russia. And this is what allowed Crimea to return to our common family.”

That “return,” which boosted Putin’s approval ratings and set the course for Russia’s expansionism in the decade to follow, is considered an illegal land grab by most of the international community, rather than a historic homecoming.

Crimea, which is crucial to Russia’s naval power , has been used as a major hub and launchpad for the war against Ukraine, which has vowed to reclaim it along with all of its occupied territory and has increasingly targeted Russian military targets on the peninsula.

“Crimea is not Russian,” Tamila Tasheva, Kyiv’s permanent representative in Crimea, told NBC News. “Legally, the territory is Ukrainian. And this, by the way, is very clearly understood subconsciously in Russia itself, and that is why such ‘celebrations’ are held in order to convince themselves of the nonexistent,” she said of the event in Red Square.

Eight years after occupying Crimea, Russia annexed four other regions from Ukraine in 2022: Kherson and Zaporizhzhia in the south, as well as Donetsk and Luhansk in the east. Some of those regions are only partially controlled by Russian troops, though that didn’t stop the Kremlin from holding a vote that saw armed men at some polling stations.

President Vladimir Putin seized Crimea from Ukraine a decade ago, a move that sent his popularity soaring but was widely denounced as illegal.

The Russian electoral commission said that in four out of the five annexed regions, including Crimea, voters gave Putin more than 90% of the vote.

These results are “fictitious” and are devoid of any legitimacy while Ukrainians there who oppose the Kremlin continue to suffer at the hands of the Russians, said Mykhailo Podolyak, an adviser to President Volodymyr Zelenskyy.

Tasheva dismissed the claimed results as “primitive propaganda.”

But for the Kremlin, the message of the three-day election, and its Monday night celebration, was clear. Ukraine will have to fight to keep hold of its territory, with Putin’s eyes now set firmly beyond the Red Square stage to the battlefields that will define his legacy.

Keir Simmons and Natasha Lebedeva reported from Moscow, and Yuliya Talmazan from London.

tourism time zones

Keir Simmons is chief international correspondent for NBC News, based in London.

Natasha Lebedeva is NBC's Senior Director for International Affairs, based in Washington.

tourism time zones

Yuliya Talmazan is a reporter for NBC News Digital, based in London.


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